Topics: Management, Organizational studies, Organizational culture Pages: 27 (5581 words) Published: December 4, 2012
Julie A. C. Noolan

Traditional diagnostic models can be categorized as descriptive models or normative models. Descriptive models With descriptive models, the role of the OD practitioner is to illuminate “what is” for the client, and “what could be”. Within descriptive models, contingency theorists would argue that the OD practitioner facilitates change only, not focus. The client determines the direction of change and the OD practitioner helps the client get there. Most diagnostic models fit under the “descriptive” category. Examples include: ! ! ! ! ! ! Bolman and Deal: Four Frames Model Freedman: Socio-technical Systems Model Galbraith: Star Model Hornstein and Tichy: Emergent Pragmatic Model [Sometimes used in developing consultant or company specific models] McKinsey: 7-S Model Nadler and Tushman: Congruence Model

Normative Models With normative models, the practitioner recommends specific directions for change, prior to the diagnosis – the “one best way of managing.” Examples include: ! ! Blake and Mouton’s Grid [Concern for People/Concern for Productivity 9, 9]. Likert’s Profiles

Yet other diagnostic approaches include Levinson’s Clinical Historical Approach, patterned on a psychoanalytic approach to the client system.

NEA/NTL OD Certificate Program Diagnosing Organizations With Impact Kaye Craft & Arty Trost March 29-April 1, 2004


By Robert J. Marshak, Ph.D.

Organizational theorists and consultants have developed a wide variety of models identifying important organizational elements and their interrelationships. Each is predicated on a particular theory/theories or perspective(s), and each intended to highlight and bring into focus a broad range of data and experience for purposes of diagnosis and intervention. A range of well-known models are displayed on the following pages. Please note: ! Most of the models suggest interaction or interrelationships among all the selected variables. Many of the same variables are contained in all the models, although not necessarily in the same way or with the same emphasis. The fewest number of variables depicted in a model is four (Leavitt), the greatest is twelve (Burke-Litwin), most are between five and seven. Each model leaves out variables that another school of thought might include or emphasize. For example, only the Hanna model mentions “hard numbers,” i.e. financial performance.

! !


NEA/NTL OD Certificate Program Diagnosing Organizations With Impact Kaye Craft & Arty Trost March 29-April 1, 2004


LIST OF MODELS INCLUDED, in Alphabetical Order by Author/s
Compiled by Robert J. Marshak, Ph.D

Beckhard, Richard Beckhard, Richard & Pritchard, Wendy Blake, Robert & Mouton, Jane Bolman, Lee G. & Deal, Terrence E. Burke, W. Warner & Litwin Freedman, Arthur M. Galbraith, Jay R. Hanna, David P. Killman, Ralph Kotter, John P. Leavitt, Harold J. Mckinsey Consulting Morgan, Gareth Nadler, David A. & Tushman, Michael L. Weisbord, Marvin R.

GRPI Change Model Managerial Grid Four Frames Model Causal Model of Performance & Change Swamp Model Of Sociotechnical Systems Star Model Organizational Performance Model Five Track Model Organizational Dynamics Model 7 Ss Model Metaphors A Congruence Model for Diagnosing Organization Behavior Six-Box Diagnostic Model

2-4 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-12 2-13 2-21 2-22 2-23 2-24 2-25 2-26 2-28 2-29 2-30

NEA/NTL OD Certificate Program Diagnosing Organizations With Impact Kaye Craft & Arty Trost March 29-April 1, 2004





Do we have clarity? Do we have agreement? What are our roles and responsibilities? How we do our work? ! ! Procedure, rules, approaches? Systems How we work together?





Interpersonal, inter-group? How do we work together in a mutually supportive way?


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