Chapter 1 Notes (PSY 402)

Topics: Ageing, Old age, Gerontology Pages: 8 (2040 words) Published: February 5, 2014
PSY402: Adult Development
Week 1, Fall 2012
Themes and Issues in Adult
Reading: Chapter 1

Introduction:
à Aging affects every individual (from the time we are born to the day we die) à In order to have a healthier and better aging process, we should incorporate behaviours and activities designed to maintain high levels of functioning well into the later decades of life For ex. smoking and drinking alcohol can/may decrease your lifespan Another ex. exercising and having a healthy diet may maintain or increase your lifespan à Remember that it is never too late to start fresh (meaning, incorporating behaviours & activities to maintain high levels of functioning in our lives). AND, it is never too late to initiate behaviours that can maintain and/or enhance your everyday functioning

The BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL Perspective:
à Biopsychosocial perspective - "a view of development as a complex interaction of biological, psychosocial, and social processes" Biological processes (including the functions and structures of body that change throughout the aging process) Physiological factors

Genetics
Psychological processes (examines thoughts, feelings, and behaviours associated with development) Cognition
Emotions
Personality
Social processes [OR aka. 'sociocultural' processes] (associated with environment or context; also referring to the status/social structure you have within your family, community, culture, country, and the world) Social context

History
Culture
à 'Identity' plays an important role within the biopsychosocial model Refers to "a composite of how people view themselves in the biological, psychological, and social domains of life" In other words, "how you view yourself as an individual"

'Self' is the combination and interaction of these 3 domains

4 Principles of Adult Development and Aging:

1. Changes are continuous over the life span
Meaning "Individuals remain the 'same' even though they change" In other words, as you age your appearance and personality will/may change, but you will always feel that you are the "same person" inside. However, outward appearance plays a large role in the way people are perceived by others

2. Only the survivors grow old
Meaning "Aging individuals are increasing self-selected"
In other words, the lifestyle you choose to have will influence how long you'll live 5 ways to shorten your life include: being overweight, drinking & driving, eating inadequate fruits & vegetables, being physically inactive, and smoking Some factors that manage to avoid death include: being inherited with good genes (biological factors), being emotionally healthy (psychological factors), or having yourself surrounded with a good support system (social factors), or a combination of these.

3. Individuality matters
Meaning "People vary within and between age groups"
People become more different from each other as they age rather than more alike. This is because we all go through different experiences in life, as well we are exposed to more and different types of diseases depending on the lifestyle we had previously at an early age Inter-individual differences ("differences between people")

The principal that people become more and more different from each other with age Intra-individual differences ("differences within an individual"; "multidirectionality of development") The principle that not all systems develop at the same rate within each person - while some functions may increase, others may decrease over time Remember that not all functions "go downhill" as we age. This is because although our physical strength may decline, solving crossword puzzles in a shorter time than younger adults may occur (through experience)

4. "Normal" aging is different from disease
Meaning "Intrinsic aging processes are different from those associated with illness" There are 3 types of aging:
Normal aging (or aka. "primary" aging)
Refer to "a set of changes built into the hard wiring of the...
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