Chapter 3 Study Guide/Key Terms
Physiologic Changes pg. 384-386
1. With aging, the __epidermis (skin)___ becomes increasingly fragile and subject to damage. 2. Clusters of __melanocytes___ cause age spots. The medical term for these is __senile lentigo__. 3. Loss of ___elastin fibers (elasticity)___ results in wrinkles. 4. Dry skin, or __xerosis__, is likely to result in itching, or __pruritus___. 5. Common skin disorders in older adults include:
c. pressure ulcers
f. senile purpura
6. Loss of subcutaneous tissue can reduce the ability of older adults to regulate body temperature, leading to an increased risk for __hypothermia____.
7. Aging bones tend to show loss of the mineral __Calcium__. 8. Shrinkage of intervertebral disks leads to a condtion called _ Kyphosis__, which results in a hunchback appearance. 9. Muscle mass and tone typically ___decrease___ with age, but this effect can be reduced by regular _____exercise____. 10. Excessive loss of calcium results in _Osteoporosis_, which is characterized by __porous__, __brittle__, __fragile__ bones that are susceptible to __breakage__. 11. Three forms of arthritis that are seen in the aging population are __Osteoarthritis_, __rheumatoid arthritis_, and __gouty arthritis__.
12. The _air passageways__ and _lung tissue_ of the chest cavity change with aging. 13. Common respiratory disorders observed with aging include: a. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
e. Lung Cancer
14. Changes in the blood vessels with aging increase the risk for low blood pressure with position changes. This is called __Orthostatic hypotension__. 15. Chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle is known as __angina pectoris__. 16. Heart __valves__ become less pliant with age, resulting in _incomplete_ sealing valves during heart beat. 17. Loss of heart pumping effectiveness, called __CHF__ or __Congestive Heart Failure_, is a common cardiac problem in older adults. This condition can be characterized as __chronic_ or __acute__. 18. Cardiomegaly, or __enlargement__ of the heart, is commonly observed with congestive heart failure. 19. Arteriosclerosis results in loss of _elasticity_ in the blood vessels. 20. Plaque formation is enhanced by lifestyle factors that include: a. obesity
b. high cholesterol intake
c. cigarette smoking
21. Hypertension affects more than __50__% of individuals older than 65 years old.
HEMATOPOIETIC AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS
22. Blood values for erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets generally remain _within normal limits_ with aging. 23. Changes in T cells results in a _diminished_ immune response, leading to modified signs of __infection_. 24. Changes in the signs of infection seen with aging include: a. body temperature may not become significantly elevated until the infection is severe b. pain may not be present to indicate infection
25. A protrusion of the stomach into the thoracic cavity, known as a _hiatal hernia_, is commonly seen with aging. Gastroesophageal reflux disease, or __heartburn__, results in movement of stomach contents into the _esophagus_, increasing the risk for __aspiration__. 26. Drugs that increase the risk for ulcer formation in older adults include: a. iron supplement
27. Weakness of the intestinal mucosa leads to the formation of _diverticula_. 28. The incidence of colon cancer peaks between __60__ and __75__ years of age.
29. The kidneys lose approximately _ 1/3__ of their efficiency by age 70, resulting in less _concentrated_ urine....
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