Chapter 3 Sections 1-4: Study Guide

Topics: Mediterranean Sea, Gautama Buddha, Hinduism Pages: 5 (1412 words) Published: February 23, 2014
Chapter 3- Sections 1-4

I. The Indo – Europeans
A. Indo-Europeans Migrate
1. The Indo-Europeans were a group of nomadic people who came from the steppes – dry grasslands that stretched north of the Caucasus 2. They herded sheep, cattle and goats and tamed horses
3. The modern languages of Europe, Southwest Asia, South Asia; English Spanish, Persian and Hindi all trace their origins back to different forms of the original Indo-European language 4. The Indo-Europeans began to migrate outward in all directions between 1700 and 1200 B.C 5. Migrations – movement of people from one region to another B. The Hittite Empire

1. Anatolia is a huge peninsula in modern-day Turkey that just out into the Black and Mediterranean seas 2. Separate Hittite city-states came together to form an empire there in about 1650 B.C. 3. The Hittite empire went to dominate Southwest Asia for 450 years but signed a peace treaty, pledging to each other that they would together fight off future invaders 4. The Hittites borrowed idea about literature, art, politics and law from the Mesopotamians 5. Around 1500 B.C, the Hittites were the first in Southwest Asia to work with iron and harden it into weapons of war 6. The Hittite empire fell around the year 1190 B.C.

C. Aryans Transform India
1. The Aryans differed from the dasas (“dark”) in many different ways such as their appearance and the language they spoke. 2. They counted their wealth in cows
3. They were divided into three social classes, Brahmins (priests), warriors, peasants or traders 4. People were born into their caste for life, it determined there: a. Role they played in society

b. What work they did
c. The man or women they could marry
d. And the people whom they could eat with
5. During the time when the Aryans were expanding east along the Ganges and Yamuna river valleys chiefs were elected by the entire tribe but around 1000 B.C, minor kings wanted to set up territorial kingdoms arose among the Aryans. With the struggle for land and power arose the major kingdom: Magadha.

II. Hinduism and Buddhism Develop
A. Hinduism Evolves Over Centuries
1. Hinduism is a collection of religious beliefs that developed slowly over a long period of time 2. Hinduism – unlike religions such as Buddhism, Christianity or Islam – cannot be traced back to one founder with a single set of ideas 3. Sometime between 750 and 550 B.C., Hindu teachers tried to interpret and explain the hidden meaning of the Vedic hymns 4. Moksha is a state of perfect understanding of all things

5. The teacher distinguishes between atman, the individual soul of a living being and Brahman, the world soul that contains and unites all atmans 6. Reincarnation – an individual soul or spirit is born again and again until moksha is achieved 7. Karma – good or bad deeds

8. The beliefs of Hinduism and its caste structure dominated every aspect of a person’s life 9. Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, (was born about 599 B.C and died in 527 B.C) had believed that every living thing had a soul and so should not be harmed B. The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment

1. The founder of Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama was born into a noble family that lived in Kapilavastu, in the foothills of the Himalayas in Nepal 2. Siddhartha wandered in India seeking different ways of enlightenment or wisdom but after 49 days of meditation he achieved an understanding of the cause of suffering in this world. From then on he was known as Buddha, “the enlightened one” 3. Buddha rejected the many gods of Hinduism and instead taught a way of enlightenment with the Eightfold Path 4. At first Buddha’s early followers consisted of laborers and craftspeople and reluctantly admitted women to religious orders but he feared however that women’s presence would distract men from their religious duties. 5. The movement in trade succeeded in making Buddhism the most widespread religion of East Asia

III. Seafaring Traders
A. Minoans Trade in the Mediterranean
1. The...
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