Test Study Guide
Tribe – a tribe is a group of families.
Patriarch – Patriarch--the dominant male leader of the tribe. Civilization – Civilization means:
social and political organization
Bronze – Bronze was an alloy of copper and tin.
Cuneiform – cuneiform--meaning “wedge shaped.”
Hieroglyphics – hieroglyphics--"sacred coverings.”
Aton – Aton was a universal god who took the form of the sun disk.
Yahweh – Yahweh---“He causes to Be”
Moses – Moses then led the Hebrews out of Egypt.
Dharma – Dharma is the moral law all Hindu must observe.
Material gain is OK so long as it is honestly and honorably achieved.
Pleasure and love is for the perpetuation of the family.
Buddha – Buddha (Enlightened One).
Four Noble Truths – Four Noble Truths.
Pain, suffering, frustration, and anxiety are inescapable parts of human life.
They are caused by human weakness
Nineveh – Nineveh was the capital of the Assyria Empire.
Cyrus the Great –
Zoroaster – Zoroaster gave Iranian religion new ideas.
Little is known of the prophet Zoroaster.
Life is a battleground between a good and evil spirit.
Each individual must choose between the two sides.
Introduces the concept of individual free will.
Polis – polis, or city-state, was the basic unit of Greek society.
the acropolis was the religious center of the polis.
the agora was its marketplace and political center.
Tyrant – Tyrants were members of the aristocracy who gained power in an unorthodox or unconstitutional way.
They were often popular with the people.
Draco – Draco, an aristocrat, was given special permission to codify and publish a law code in 621 B.C.
Draco's law code was designed to end blood feuds between clans.
Deme – Demes were the basis of political citizenship.
Sophist – The Sophists were teachers of rhetoric and virtue.
Sophists were concerned with the contradiction between nature and custom.
Socrates – Socrates attempted to discover truth by continuous questioning.
In 399 B.C., the Athenians convicted him of bringing new gods into the city and corrupting the youth.
Plato – Plato sought to define the perfect society.
In The Republic, Plato divides society into rulers, guardians, and workers.
The rulers would be educated philosopher-kings.
Hellenistic World – See attachment
People, Places, and Events
Human society in the Paleolithic Age –
Human survival depended upon the hunt.
people did not farm
People were hunters and gatherers.
Learned to control fire
Make tools from stone
Clothes from animal skins.
First art dates from this time.
Animals depicted ones hunted or feared
Statuettes of pregnant women express hope for children.
May also express hope for a good harvest.
Neolithic, or New Stone Age (10,000--3,000 B.C.).
Planting of crops and domestication of animals was greatest achievement.
People began to settle in villages and towns.
Appearance of Agriculture.
the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers
The Nile River
the Indus River
the Yellow River
New Tools And Techniques.
The plow came into use around 3,000 B.C.
Wheel had been invented by 3,000 B.C.
Around 3,000 B.C., civilizations in the Near East began using bronze Mesopotamia/Sumeria
The first civilization in Mesopotamia –
Sumerians built the first cities and civilizations in Mesopotamia.
Made Mesopotamia the "cradle of civilization."
Sumerian religion –
Sumerian religion had a gloomy picture of the after-life.
Grand monuments would hopefully please and restrain the gods
The ziggurat was a temple to the Sumerian gods.
Invention of Writing
Sumerian cuneiform evolved from a pictographic system.
Called cuneiform--meaning “wedge shaped.”
Was carved on moist stone with a pointed stylus
Scribes were taught in schools and precision was important.
Sloppiness was punished...
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