History of Civilizations Study Guide CH 1-3

Topics: Qin Shi Huang, Qin Dynasty, Four Noble Truths Pages: 13 (2773 words) Published: September 30, 2013
History Study Guide
Test 1

Neolithic Age and Revolution

What? It is a significant change in living patterns that occurred in the New Stone Age that influence in the evolution of the human being and creation of civilizations around the world.

When? Right at the end of the Ice Age, around 10,000 b.c.e

How? Through the shift from hunting animals and gathering plants for sustenance (food gathering) to producing food by systematic agriculture (food production). The planting of grains and vegetables provided a regular supply of food, while the domestication of animals, such as sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs, added a steady source of meat, milk, and fibers such as wool for clothing. The shift from hunting animals and gathering plants for sustenance (food gathering) to producing food by systematic agriculture (food production). The planting of grains and vegetables provided a regular supply of food, while the domestication of animals, such as sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs, added a steady source of meat, milk, and fibers such as wool for clothing. Also the creation of tools and the discovery of fire took place during this revolution.

Where? In the Middle East, through southeastern Europe and the Mediterranean, and aso from western Asia to Egypt and Africa.

Why? Because this change gave humans greater control over their environment and enabled them to give up their nomadic ways of life and live in settled communities. The increase in food supplies also led to a noticeable expansion of the population. ---

River Valley Civilizations

What? Civilizations created around large rivers in early history

Where? Around large rivers such as the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia, the Nile in Egypt, the Indus in India, and the Yellow River in China

Why? Because fertile soil was found near to these bodies of water, enabling crop growing and the use of irrigation to grow food necessary to survive and also the need to move around looking for food ceases and big cities are built around these rivers.

When? Between 3000 and 1500 bce

How? Nomadic people traveled around until they found these bodies of water and set camp there.

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Ziggurat

What? A massive stepped tower

Where? Summerian Cities

When? By 3000 bce

How? With mud bricks shaped by hand and left in the hot sun to bake and harden.

Why? To build temples in dedication to the chief god or goddess of the city.

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Hammurabi Code

What? A collection of 282 laws

Why? To provide penalties for criminal offenses were whose severity varied according to the class an individual belonged to. A crime against a member of the upper class (a noble) by a member of the lower class (a commoner) was punished more severely than the same offense against a member of the lower class. Moreover, the principle of ‘‘an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth’’ was fundamental to this system of justice. This meant that punishments should fit the crime. This set of laws was created by Hammurabi himself so as to portray himself as a source of justice and shepherd of peace to his people.

When? Around 1792 bce

Where? Mesopotamia
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Cuneiform

What? System of writing

Where? Sumerian civilizations in Mesopotamia

When? 3000 bce

How? Using a reed stylus, they made wedge-shaped impressions on clay tablets, which were then baked or dried in the sun.

Why? Used for documentation, because it enabled a society to keep records and maintain knowledge of previous practices and events. Writing also made it possible for people to communicate ideas in new ways.

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Akenaten (Amenhotep IV)

What? A pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty

When? Around 1364- 1347

Why is he known? This is the pharaoh that introduced the god Aten (god of the sun disk) as the sole god to be worshiped, closing down all other gods' temples. He was so concerned with religion that he completely disregarded foreign affairs and caused the...
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