Persians first to achieve a complex political organization during the end of the second millennium. Medes played a major role in the destruction of the Assyrians Empire Persians now call themselves Achaemenids because they were ancestors of Achamenes. Cyrus(Kurush) son of a Persian chieftain and median princess, united Persian tribes and over threw the median monarch around. Cyrus Redrew the map of the west 550 b.c.e Like most Indo-European people the early inhabitants of western Iran had a patriarchal family organization. Social class and Occupational classes, three social classes (Warriors- Knights or Soldiers Priests-Priest sometimes called Magi (Magush) ritual Specialists Peasants-Shepherds and village based farmers) Persians won the war against Egyptians in a series of bloody battles then they were sent expeditions south to Nubia and west to Libya Cambyse Cyrus son was depicted as a cruel and impious madman based on the Greeks opinion and documents from Egypt show him operating the same practical vein Darius I seized the throne many challenged his rule but were unsuccessful and promoted the development of maritime routes. Darius I empire was the largest the world had seen yet expanding from eastern Europe to Pakistan southern Russia to Sudan contained tons of different ethic groups and Darius can rightly be considered Persians second founder. Imperial Organization and Ideology
Persian Empire was divided into twenty provinces each was under the supervision of a Persian satrap(like a governor most likely a member of the royal family) Satraps duty was to send tribute to the king and control the province appointed to them. Darius put quotas on the tributes and the demand became harder to meet which resulted in a economic downfall by the fourth century. Royal Roads :Connected the outlying provinces to the heart of the empire. (Well maintained and Patrolled) Built in intervals to receive important travelers and couriers...
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