Quiz #2 Notes

Topics: Cyrus the Great, Achaemenid Empire, Ancient Greece Pages: 6 (1165 words) Published: January 16, 2014
Quiz #2
The Five Philosophies
oConfucianism
Founded by Kung Fu Tzu (Confucius)
Emphasized the Analects
Created a type of social philosophy
Believed everyone was essentially the same but learning and practice distinguished them Referred back to a Golden Age he hoped to recapture
Advocated development of Five Inner Virtues especially li – moral propriety and ren - humanity -- “tao” All society is built on the idea of filial (family) piety -- “xiao” Superior men – “Chun- tzu” led by example

Noted five basic social relationships
I.Ruler and Minister – Righteousness
II.Father and Son – Affection
III.Husband and Wife – Attention to their separate functions IV.Younger Sibling and Older Sibling – A proper order
V.Friend and Friend – Fidelity
Forward the Doctrine of the Rectification of Names
We should seek to become the superior power gentlemen “Chun-Tzu”, who takes benevolence as his burden and develops a sense of shame (in opposition/contrast to the man) oTaoism (Daoism)
Founded by Hao-Tzu main text – Tao Te Ching
Emphasized tranquility non-conformity individual life transcendental spirit Goal to be in harmony with the Tao
Advanced the Doctrine of Wuwei and non-action
oLegalism
Found by lord Shang Yang
Main text book of Lord Shang
“statist” philosophy
Considered “human nature” evil
State has to make people do the right thing
Emphasized military and agriculture and obedience to the law Resulted in harsh rule generally rejected by Chinese at the Qin dynasty oBuddhism
Siddharta Gautama – founder’s name
Great renunciation
Middle way
Meditation under the “Bodhi tree”
Found enlightenment, thereby becoming a Buddha
Traveled and taught his doctrine for years, later compiled in writing At “councils” (the third sponsored by Asoka)
Two General Interpretations of Buddha’s insights:
I.Theravada School (orthodox, aka Hinayana or lesser vehicle) a.4 noble truths
b.The eightfold path
c.Nirvana
II.Mahayana School (“Great vehicle”)
a.Gautama is deified
b.Added a type of savior – the bodhisattvas roughly “Buddhas-in-the-making” c.Began worship of Buddhist monuments
d.Developed idea of Nirvana as a “happy land” paradise
oJainism
Vardhamana
Became an ascetic, adopting an extreme form of self-denial After 13 years he found enlightenment
Became Jina (a conqueror)
Recognized as Mahavira (Great Hero)
Jain believe:
The universe evolved through cycles
Some souls are dragged down by karma
Salvation consists of “freeing of the soul from weighty karma”  
Hebrews
oNomadic scientific speaking people
oAbraham leads Hebrews to Canaan (Palestine)
oCovenant with god
Become Gods “chosen people”
World’s first Monotheistic religion is established
Isaac’s “near sacrifice”
oJacob leads some of the Hebrews to Egypt
May have been welcomed by the Semitic Hyksos
Enter into slavery (possibly for three countries)
oMoses reads Hebrews out of Egypt into the Sinai Desert
Deceives the ten commandments from Jehovah/Yahweh
oJoshua takes the Hebrews “across” the Jordan river
oMonarchy is response to Philistine threat, unites Hebrew tribes King Saul (c. 1020 – 1004 BC)
King David (c. 1004 – 965 BC)
King Solomon (965 – 928 BC)
oKingdom splits into Israel (north) and Judah (south)
Assyrians conquered Israel (722 BC) – 10 lost tribes
Chaldeans conquered Judah (597 BC) – Babylonian captivity oPeriod of Second Temple begins after Persians conquer Chaldeans oTime of “prophets” inspire Hebrews after return
oJesus proclaims self-savior (“Christ”) s crucified

Ancient Greece
oMinoans
Located on Island of Crete
Discovered in modern times by Arthur Evans using clues in the Myth of Theseus in which king Minos kept a Minotaur in a labyrinth Discovered a great place at Knossos that had indoor plumbing and was decorated with frescoes Established a marathon empire called a...
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