Most religions are patriarchal.
-Institution led by men that intend to represent “father figures.”
-Women are mostly seen as supporting figures.
-Women are usually supporting social causes.
Negative aspects of religion:
-deaths and wars
-unethical and misguided
-political power, groups of followers are able to effect political progress.
-may split rather than unify
-routinization of charisma leads to a focus on the outside rather than inner spirituality.
-exaggeration of guilt
-manipulate followers to believe in unethical. Jihad actually means inner struggle. Who studies religion?
Phenomenology- study specific to the study of Religion from the perspective of the believer.
Hermeneutics- the study of the actual religious theory and its interpretation.
Indigenous means native to the land.
Everything on Earth is equal
Indigenous Sacred Ways
-have been little understood by outsiders
-secret, sacred beliefs and traditions
-lifestyle being connected to land
-circle of right relationships with all beings
See circles in rituals, the sun&moon, represents no beginning or end as well as everyone relying on each other.
-Relationship with self and spirit
-Supreme being is the creator, manifested in every way and everything.
-Spirit is understood to be their ancestors
Indigenous Sacred Ways
Kinship with all creations.
Humans are equal to nature.
Spirits manifested through rivers, mountains, et cetera.
The spirits are believed to be ancestors.
Be careful not to anger them, keep them on your good side to protect, help, and serve.
Maintain balance and right relationship between all beings, people > ancestors > power. Relationship with power.
Sacred trust, not to be used for selfish reasons.
Heal physical, psychological, and social ailments.
Shaman: has to go through their own death and spiritual rebirth, develop relationship with
physical and nonphysical world. Started in Siberia 20 to 30 thousand years ago. Storytellers-
Pass down stories from generation to generation, gives meaning, teaches sacred ways, preserve
in secret societies separate men and women. Secret Societies perform ritual called dreaming to get in touch with the spirit world.
Dancing – non-verbal symbol that has meaning through movement. Unity;
Observances > birth, puberty, marriage, death, survival, celebrations, renewal, purification. Communication broken > lose power of group rituals
-Loss of cultural identity around world > morals aka right and wrong -Technology > knowledge of other religions > greater understanding, open mind
“Hate crimes” online anonymously, false information, communication for terrorist groups. -Media > propaganda and bias.
CHAPTER TWO: Hinduism
TEST FEBRUARY 18TH COVERING CH 1, 2, AND 3. Believe in one god just different forms. Brahman.
330,000 million to 100’s of thousands of deities.
Hinduism was a term applied by British in the 19th century.
Term coined by outsiders who referred to them by their river the Indus calling them Hindus. Hindus believe they are following the Brahmanic tradition started in second to mid first millennium
BCE(Before Common Era) Samsara cycle of birth and rebirth
Moksha escape from cycle of birth and rebirth.
Oldest global religion and most complex.
Thematic > Philosophical & metaphysical elements.
Sanskrit is the main language, formed from Indo-European languages.
Agni- god of fire – similar to ignite in English
Started in the Indus Valley> Aryans > began Vedic tradition. (one theory) Aryan is Sanskrit > swastika in
Sanskrit> “well being” Started in IV > Dravidian (another theory)
Started in IV > People started traveling and...
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