ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL GREECE 3

Topics: Ancient Greece, Greece, Alexander the Great Pages: 30 (2018 words) Published: December 12, 2014
Answer on your notecards
To turn in at the end of class.
What legacy did the Greek civilizations leave to be implemented by Future generations?
“A”
“P”
“E”

ANCIENT AND
CLASSICAL
GREECE
CIVILIZATION COMES TO
EUROPE

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
• The Land
– Mountains dominate land; cross land travel
difficult
– Fertile river valleys were center of settlement and
the basis of the polis
– No place more than a few miles from sea
– Outdoor life common due to temperate climate

• The Sea
– Greece is a series of peninsulas and islands
– Sea travel easier than land communication
– Most Greeks took to the sea

• Economy
– Agriculture: Grains, honey, olives, grapes
– Herding: Goats, sheep, cattle
– Trade: Necessary to make up for lack of resources

PHYSICAL MAP OF AREA

MINOAN SOCIETY
• Knossos





Minoan society arose on Crete, late 3rd millennium B.C.
Takes name from legendary king of Knossos, Minos
Lavish palaces at Knossos, between 2000 and 1700 B.C.
Linear A, a kind of written language, is found

• Island of Crete

– From 2200 to 1450 B.C., center of Mediterranean commerce – Received early influences from Phoenicia and Egypt
– Established colonies on Cyprus and islands in the Aegean Sea

• Society

– Much evidence of egalitarian society (all people are equal and deserve equal rights and opportunities); women had rights
– Agriculture was important: grapes, olives, fishing, wheat – Trade was very important: marble, artifacts, cloth

• Decline of Minoan Society

– After 1700 B.C.E., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis – After 1450 B.C.E., wealth attracted a number of invaders – By 1100 B.C.E., Crete fell under foreign (Hellenic) domination

THE ISLAND OF CRETE

MYCENAEAN GREECE
• Mycenaean society



– Indo-European (term for the origin of most European and
Indian languages) immigrants settled in area, 2000 B.C.E.
– Adapted Minoan Linear A into their script Linear B
– Fortified agricultural settlements in Peloponnesus
– Most important settlement was Mycenae
– Society resembled Aryan: emphasis on war, trade
– Kingdoms ruled by strongest of nobles; constant strife
Chaos in the eastern Mediterranean 1100 to 800 BCE
– Mycenaeans engaged in Trojan war, about 1200 B.C.E.
• Troy may have been a Hittite city-state and trade rival
• Tomb of Agamemnon, Troy excavated by von Schliemann
• Recorded by Homer in the Illiad and the Odyssey
– More invasions by Hellenic tribes
– “Sea Peoples”
• Later Hellenic invaders moved by sea along coasts
• Seemed to have raided into Palestine, Egypt as
Philistines

ANCIENT GREECE

THE GREEK DARK AGES
• 800 TO 500 BCE





Called Dark Ages due to loss of writing
Age remembered through oral traditions
A period of migration and warfare
Hellenes spread to Italy, Sicily, Asia
Minor, Cyprus

• The Hellenes





Indo-Europeans who settled in area
Tribes include Dorians, Attics, Achaeans
Originally aristocratic societies
Warfare, slavery, and trade common

GREEK TRIBES

THE POLIS
• Greek City-State
– Polis = city-state; Poleis = citystates
– Metropolis = city of polis
– Acropolis = fortified center of city
– Boundaries shaped by geography
– Terms of politics come from POLIS
• Politics, politic, politician, polite, polity
• Police, metropolis, metroplex

• Most important
– Athens
– Sparta

POLIS OF ATTICA

POLITICAL FORMS
• Archon: Greek for “ruler” – English “archy”
• Kratien: Greek for “to rule” – English “cracy” –













Demos: People – Democracy (direct election)
Aristos: The Best – Aristocracy (nobles)
Oligos: The Few – Oligarchy (rule by select few)
Monos: One – Monarchy (rule by a king)
Di: Two – Diarchy (Sparta’s state had 2 kings)
An: None – Anarchy (No government)
Theos: God – Theocracy (Rule by priests, religion)
Geron: Old Man – Gerontocracy (rule by elderly)
Pater: Father – Patriarchy (rule by males)
Mater: Mother...
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