Different Period and Their Works of Art
The stone age can be divided into two phases: Paleolithic (old stone age) and Neolithic (new stone age). During the Paleolithic, humans lived as nomadic hunter-gatherers. During the Neolithic, humans adopted and settled agricultural life. Neolithic Period or New Stone Age
The term neolithic is used, especially in archaeology and anthropology, to designate a stage of cultural evolution or technological development characterized by the use of stone tools, the existence of settled villages largely dependent on domesticated plants and animals, and the presence of such crafts as pottery and weaving. The time period and cultural content indicated by the term varies with the geographic location of the culture considered and with the particular criteria used by the individual scientist. The earliest known development of Neolithic culture was in SW Asia between 8000 B.C. and 6000 B.C.
Chalcolitic Era in Persia. Chalcolithic ( Gk. Khalkos “copper” and lithos “stone”) is a term adopted for the Near East early in this century as part of an attempt to refine the framework of cultural developmental “stages” (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron Ages). In Near Eastern archeology it now generally refers to the “evolutionary” interval between two “revolutionary” eras of cultural development: the Neolithic (ca. 10,000-5500 BC., but varying from area to area), during which techniques of food production and permanent village settlement were established in the highlands and adjacent regions, and the Bronze Age (ca. 3500-1500 BC., also varying with the area), during which the first cities and state organizations arose. EARLY BRONZE AGE
The Greek Bronze Age or the Early Helladic Era started around 2800 BC and lasted till 1050 BC in Crete while in the Aegean islands it started in 3000 BC. The Bronze Age in Greece is divided into periods such as Helladic I and II. The colonies were made of 300 to 1000 people. Arts and crafts included ceramic pottery, which were painted in earthy colors. Manufacture of tools was from bone, metals and stones using advanced technology. Figurines reflected the social and lifestyle habits. Weaving also constituted an important part, but the remains were lost in time because they were of perishable nature. The Early Bronze Age paved the way for Minoans and the Mycenaean Greeks, which was characterized by its prosperity and the rich empires.
Group of Four Vases
Late Early Bronze Age III
The Iron Age levels have been the most thoroughly investigated at Hasanlu (Hasanlu is an ancient Near Eastern site of the late second to first millennium B.C.). The remnants of material culture recovered there, especially the artifacts found inside the burned citadel buildings of Hasanlu IVB, includes thousands of ceramic, iron, bronze, stone, glass, ivory, and gold artifacts. The cemetery to the north of the citadel used during periods IV and V yielded hundreds of artifacts as well. Among the artifacts found in the destroyed buildings, one in particular is justly famous—the Hasanlu Gold Bowl (actually a beaker). The bowl was discovered along with the remains of three men in Burned Building I. Whether these men, two of whom are armed, were rescuing the bowl from the invading army or stealing it is unknown.
Lion Head Plaque,
Iron Age I; Iran; Excavated at Hasanlu
This ivory plaque with a winged, snarling lion is one of several similarly decorated ivory fragments excavated at Hasanlu. The creature's mane is rendered in triangular tufts, while its wing is shown with four feathers emerging from a curved band. A dowel hole at the upper left suggests how such carved plaques were once attached to pieces of furniture or other objects. Although winged lions exist in both Assyrian and northern Syrian art, this example reflects a style of ivory carving found at...
Citations: R. M. Adams, “The Mesopotamian Social Landscape. A View from the Frontier,” in C. B. Moore, ed., Reconstructing Complex Societies, Cambridge, Mass., 1974, pp. 1-20.http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Earlybronze/
Tedesco, Laura Anne
"Group of four vases [Northwest Anatolia]" (1989.281.45a,b-.48) In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
"Bowl [Syria]" (1985.356.19) In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1985.356.19. (October 2006)
Smith, W. Stevenson, and Simpson, William Kelly. ”The Art and Architecture of Ancient Egypt,” 3rd edn. 1998, Yale University Press. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_of_ancient_Egypt.
Department of Greek and Roman Art. "Geometric Art in Ancient Greece". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: TheMetropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/grge/hd_grge.htm (October 2004)
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