Chapter 3: Ancient Greek Civilization
1. During the Mycenaean civilization, who was the great poet and what were his two important literary works that influenced the Greeks and formed part of Western literature? Homer, The Iliad, The Odyssey
2. In a period known as the Dark Ages from 100 B.C. to 800 B.C., life reverted to simpler forms and people lived in relative isolation.
3. The period from the 9th to the 6th century B.C. is known as the Archaic Age during which the Greek kings were deposed by oligarchies (rule of a few who have power and wealth) of wealthy warriors, and the city-states or polis emerged.
4. A typical Greek city-state would have a fortified hilltop known as the acropolis and the city market would be located in the agora.
5. The Greek deities were anthropomorphic because they had human qualities in their personalities and bodies.
6. Two of the Greek attitudes toward life were Optimists and Egoists.
7. Epic poetry are long poetic narrations of heroic feats and the most famous was a blind epic poet called Homer who became known for the two most famous epic poems of the Iliad and the Odyssey.
8. The main protagonist of the Iliad is King Agamemnon & Achilles, and of the Odyssey is Odysseus who blinds the Cyclops Polyphemus.
9. Explain the historical importance of Homer's epic poems for the ancient Greeks. _________
10. With Homer the beginnings of ___________ consists of a concern with human beings and their achievements, as he focuses his attention on human characters, demonstrating that Greek quality of interest in humanity or human nature, even the gods are anthropomorphic.
11. Explain the difference between the central theme of the Iliad and of the Odyssey. __________
12. A unique way in which the Greeks were the first to comprehend the reality they observed and tried to understand, was Systematic thought or speculation.
13. Greek philosophy begins with the Ionian City of Miletus in the 7th century B.C.
14. Why is the Greek discovery of philosophy important? Explain in your own words.
The discovery of Greek philosophy is important because they begin to think in logical terms. This means that they move away from thinking that supernatural forces are the forces that cause events and life to happen. It is no longer the will of the gods that bring about natural disasters. Greeks began to think in terms of cause and effect, unlike other surrounding civilizations. Most importantly the rules of the Greeks applied no matter the location. As being that humans created the idea of gods and not gods themselves, mythical thinking was way off. In essence, mythical thinking was the lazy way out of explaining life and phenomena. Mythical thinking allowed many different explanations contradicting explanation with infinite details; however the Greek philosophy sought one explanation with a objective/logical way of thinking with less details.
15. Explain the principle of exclusion, and why it is important for the progress of man.
Before the Greeks other civilizations had many different ways of thinking. The Greeks along with their Philosophers determined there is only one explanation, one that is always true and correct. This principle was important because it allowed Philosophers and other great thinkers the introduction of science, allowing them to investigate the workings of human intelligence, nature, and life. This way of thinking made the Greeks the smartest civilization in their time.
16. The idea of the atom was created by Democritus.
17. Total relativism is a characteristic of the Sophists philosophy.
18. According to Socrates, what is the method or means by which man can come to know the universal truth that does not change? Explain it.
The method or means by which man can came to know the universal truth included asking questions on specific problem or issue and from that question you would derive an answer. Therefore eliminating the false sides...
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