AP ART HISTORY
EXAM STUDY PACKET
BARRON'S BOOK PAGE NUMBERS IN RED
TEXTBOOK PAGES IN BLUE
YEARS IN GREEN
WORKS ARE UNDERLINED
LOCATIONS ARE ITALICIZED
Venus of Willendorf 68 17
Short, fat figure of a woman. It is small and meant to be carried around. Her large stomach and breasts show that she was a symbol of fertility.
Lascaux Caves (Dordgone, France) 69 21/23
Huge set of cave paintings with many different scenes. Most of them are of cows, bulls, horses, and deer. Negative handprints are the way of showing signatures. The paintings were made to ensure success in hunts, for ancestral animal worship, and shamanism.
Stonehenge (Wiltshire, England) 69 28
Large stone slabs called megaliths were rolled by tree trunks into place. It is a post-and-lintel building. The large megaliths in the center are over 20 feet tall and form a horseshoe surrounding a central flat stone. The structure is oriented toward the sunrise on the longest day of the year, and may also predict eclipses.
Archaeology: the scientific study of ancient people and cultures principally revealed through excavation. Cromlech: a circle of megaliths.
Henge: a Neolithic monument, characterized by a circular ground plan. Used for rituals and marking astronomical events. Megalith: a stone of great size used in the construction of a prehistoric structure. Menhir: a large uncut stone erected as a monument in the prehistoric era. Mortise-and-tenon: a groove cut into stone or wood, called a mortise, that is shaped to receive a tenon, or projection, of the same dimensions. Post-and-lintel: a method of construction in which two posts support a horizontal beam, called a lintel.
ANCIENT NEAR EAST ART
Statuettes from Tell Asmar 73 35
Figures of many different heights, hands are folded in gesture of prayer. Their eyes are huge, as if they are in awe, or mesmerized by whatever they are praying to.
Standard of Ur 74 37
Two sides: one shows war and the other shows peace. May have been used as a soundbox for a musical instrument. The war side shows the Sumerian king half a head taller than the rest, he is inspecting captives, some being shamed by their nakedness. Figures have broad frontal shoulders, and their bodies are in profile.
Soundbox of a Lyre 74 38
A lyre is a musical instrument. The lyre itself has a bull's head on it. The soundbox has four panels: Top: Sumerian wrestling two bulls that have human heads.
2nd level: wolf carries a table with animal parts, preparing for a ceremony; lion carries wine, a jug, and a cup. 3rd level: donkey plays a bull-harp; a bear dances; seated fox plays a rattle. 4th level: What is thought to be a jackal waves rattles; a scorpion man
Animals take on human characteristics, figures are in profile but shoulders are frontal.
Ziggurat (Ur, Iraq) 74 41
HUGE mud-brick building that tapers down so rainwater washes off. The four corners are oriented to the compass. There is a small temple at the top. Whitewash was used to disguise the mud appearance.
Victory Steele of Naram-Sin 75 40
Naram-Sin defeats soldiers and they fall beneath him as he climbs to join the gods, who are represented as suns at the top of the mountain. He thinks he himself is a god, which is why he wears a horned crown of divinity. Hierarchy of scale is used to show his importance.
Stele of Hammurabi 76 30/43
The sun god gives Hammurabi the right to rule and the code of laws. The beards symbolize wisdom, the god's is longer than Hammurabi's. Though their shoulders are frontal, they stare at each other directly. 300 law entries are placed below the grouping.
Ishtar Gate 76 47
Glazed bricks cover mud walls of the city. Animals guard the gate to the city. Lions, dragons, bulls, etc. Crenellations give a warlike appearance to the gate....
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