Buddha on Suffering

Topics: Buddhism, Gautama Buddha, Four Noble Truths Pages: 31 (11873 words) Published: November 19, 2013


BUDDHA’S SECOND NOBLE TRUTH
AND
IT’S RELEVANCE IN THE
PRESENT WORLD

Not to do any evil,
to cultivate what is wholeness,
to purify one’s mind:
this is the teaching of the Buddhas
(Dhammapada, verse 183)
Buddha’s Second Noble Truth and Its Relevance in the Present World

TABLE OF CONTENTS
acknowledgementiv
TABLE OF CONTENTSv
v
general introduction1
CHAPTER 13
THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF BUDDHA3
1.0 Introduction3
1.1 The Life of Buddha3
1.2 The Main Teachings of Buddha7
1.3 The Valid Sources (Buddhist Scriptures)9
1.4 General Concept of ‘Suffering’ In Today’s World11 1.5 How did Buddha find an explanation for suffering?11
1.6 Conclusion11
CHAPTER 213
DETAILED EXPLANATION AND ANALYSIS OF SECOND NOBLE TRUTH13
2.0 Introduction13
2.1 The Second Noble Truth – The Cause of Suffering13
2.2 Pratityasamudapada19
2.3 Karma and Rebirth 20
2.4 All is Impermanent21
2.5 The Theory of the Non-Existence of the Soul22
2.6 All is misery23
2.7 Conclusion23
CHAPTER 324
THE RELEVANCE OF SECOND NOBLE TRUTH IN THE PRESENT WORLD24
3.0 Introduction24
3.1 The Main Issues24
3.2 Relevance of Second Noble Truth in Today’s World25
3.3 Selfishness, Wealth, Power30
3.4 Philosophy of Becoming30
3.5 Conclusion 31
GENERAL CONCLUSION33
BIBLIOGRAPHY35

general introduction
The English term ‘Buddhism’ correctly indicates that the religion is characterized by a devotion to the Buddha. The term ‘Buddha’ means the enlightened one. Gautama Buddha, who is the founder of this philosophy, was born in 560 BCE. The philosophy which is 2500 years old is still relevant and acceptable and it is this very fact which led me to do this work. Buddhism begins from the problem of suffering (Dukkha) and its cessation. This may lead us to mistake Buddhism as a pessimistic philosophy but in the advancement of study we come to realize that Buddhism is a doctrine of hope. Nirvana is the anticipated goal of Buddhism. It is absolute cessation of suffering or a state of equanimity of mind. The eastern minds, unlike the westerners, had always been spiritualistic. The Vedic and upanishadic traditions had helped a lot in the moulding of such a mind set for the inhabitants of this peninsula. Except Carvaka, all other systems of the Indian philosophy are essentially spiritual in nature. The supremacy of the Brahmin class had led to a situation of excessive ritualism in ancient India. This led the community of that time to the need of a radical awakening and thus emerged the Buddha as the satisfier of the spiritual disgust of the time. The Buddha was the real light house for the people of an era which was deviating much from proper philosophy and religion. He was a sage of the era. If we examine the present world, we see that today the value of the individual has, more radically than at any other time in the history, been called in question by technology and all that it entails. We have become strangers in the environment we ourselves created. People try to escape in one way or other from their responsibilities towards family, society and themselves. A fundamental change has become a pressing need of the modern times. The only solution to this dilemma is an absolute change in the mindset and consciousness of the individual. Indian philosophy had, for a long time, been engaged in search of this question and the quest was satisfied by the accurate and logical teachings of the enlightened Gautama Siddhartha, the Buddha. The Buddha’s uniqueness lies in his emphatic insistence on first hand knowledge. He was not at all interested in the highly intellectualistic ontological enquiries rather he concentrated on the reality that was then in front him. This was an optimistic approach and it is the seed for the novelty of Buddhism. This, He did, was not for instituting a new system but for conquering himself by eliminating the feeling of insecurity, doubt and sorrow from one’s mind....

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