Buddhism is one of the most remarkable development of Indian thought. It is an offshoot of later Vedic thought. Buddhism is founded on the rejection of certain orthodox Hindu Philosophical concepts. It has many philosophical views with Hinduism, such as belief in Karma, a cause and effect relationship between all that has being done and all that will be done. Events that occur are held to be direct results of previous events. The ultimate goal for both is to eliminate Karma (both good & bad), end the cycle of rebirth and suffering and attain freedom (Moksha or Nirvana).
Buddhist education system (200B.C to 200 A.D) was founded by Lord Gautama Buddha. Gautama Buddha was primarily an ethical teacher and reformer and not a philosopher. He was concerned mainly with the problems of life. He avoided the discussion of metaphysical question because they are ethically useless and intellectually uncertain. He always discussed the most important questions of suffering, its cessation and the path leading to its cessation.
Thus, Buddha’s enlightenment which he tried to share with all fellow-beings has come to be known as the four Noble Truths. Four Noble truths are:
There is suffering
There is cause of suffering
There is cessation of suffering
There is a way to cessation of suffering
Buddhists philosophy of life to get ‘Nirvana’ from suffering is based on the following eight principles:
Right Faith (SamyakDristi)
Right Resolve (SamyakSankalpa)
Right Speech (SamyakVakya)
Right Action (SamyakKarmanta)
Right Living ( SamyakAjiva)
Right Thought (SamyakSmriti)
Right concentration (Samyak Samadhi)
Right Effort (SamyakVyayama)
EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF BUDDHISM
Buddhist Education offered to impart education to all. Many people shifted to Buddhist system of education. It was for the first time in India that education was institutionalised on a large scale during Buddhist movement. It is also a historical fact that with the arrival of Buddhist era great international centres of education like Nalanda, Takshashila, Vikramshila, Ballabhi, Odantapuri, Nadia, Amravati, Nagahalla and Saranath were in prominence. Educational centres in Buddha period developed in Viharas and Sanghas.
Aims of Education:
The Buddhist educational aims were comprehensive based on knowledge, social development, vocational development, religious development, character development aims which were as follows:
To follow the moral values of Buddhist religion
To adopt good conduct and violence
To achieve the final goal of Nirvana
To propagate Buddhism
To eradicate Vedic karmakanda or ritualism
To give up caste system
To take the teachings of Buddhism to the masses.
To leave yajna and sacrifices for achieving knowledge
To provide education in the language of masses i.ePali
To emphasise the progress and development of the society rather than the individual To provide education through the new system this was stated by Buddha.
Principles of Education:
Avidya that is ignorance must be removed through education as it is the root cause of sufferings Education should be provided in peaceful sorroundings in Buddhists monastries, viharas and organised educational institutions instead of Gurukulas. Pupils should be educated in a democratic atmosphere
Things of luxury must be prohibited for students.
Framed few commandments for the Suddhvi, Harika (new entrant) at the time of ‘Pabajja’ ceremony. A ritual called as “pabajja ritual was necessary for admission to a monastery for education. Educational period for this phase was 12 years. After 20 years of age Upsampada ritual was performen to gain an entry into higher education.Rules for second ceremony ‘Upasampada were also laid down.
Two tier system:
1) Popular Elementary Education
2) Higher Education
Popular Elementary education was religious in nature, included wordly education, upto the age of 12...
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