CULTURE AND IDENTITY
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Culture, this is a way that an individual attaches themselves to a certain community from which they are from, a way in which an individual is brought up based on what that community believes in; according to theorists culture is “the shared philosophies, ideologies, values, assumptions, beliefs, expectations, attitudes and norms that knit a community together…” Meek (1988, p.457) when considering an organisation, the founder of that particular organisation is where the culture will be derived from, for example the Red Carnation Hotel’s culture is to make the guests feel they are in their own home “home away from home” redcarnationhotels.com, (2012) this concept is embedded in all the RCH hotels. Identity is what an individual identifies themselves to be, for example depending on where they work or their state in which they find themselves in is what they will identify themselves to be. Identity can be derived from the surroundings; it defines who that person is based on where the individual was brought up; Tajfel (1978) comments on ‘social identity’ and how an individual identifies themselves based on the ‘social group’ they belong to; In order for this to happen the in-groups of the organisation need to ‘reciprocate’ the corporate culture to the out-groups and allow ‘assimilation’ to take place in order for the culture to be embedded in the individual. The essay will outline the positive and negative impacts that identity and corporate culture can cause to the hospitality industry if not incorporated correctly by the managers of the organizations, which can then cause a rejection of the culture and therefore affect an individual’s performance, which in the long run will affect the organisations performance when it comes to competition. Literature Review
Corporate culture and worker identity have been said to share different values, after extensive research from other theorists it has been said that culture and identity are ‘meta-concepts’ Glenn (1991). Which suggest they work very closely with one another and that they are not all that different from one another; Hogg (2000) comments on how certain individuals derive their identity from the organisation, the corporate culture of the organisation is what an individual will identify themselves to be based on the values and beliefs of the corporate culture. In this essay the discussion will focus upon the complexity of corporate culture and worker identity. The way in which culture and identity affect the hospitality industry through incremental change and or discontinuous change, this is also because many theorists “have sought to further identify and elaborate the theoretical constructs that underpin the concept in order to develop a more comprehensive theory of culture in organisations” Ogbonna and Harris (2000, p.33) this is to better serve the individuals who want to adapt the culture of the organisation to their own, but in order for that to happen they need to understand what the culture is. Culture cannot be defined in one particular way it has different attributes and meanings depending on what context it is used. For example Hofstead (1991, ed. 1994) defines the diversity and complexity of culture using the ‘onion diagram’ which illustrates the different stages of culture and how when applied to an organisation the different practices can affect both the organisation and the individual. Managers therefore play a vital part in implementing the culture to the individuals, Cameron et al (1999) says in order for culture to be embedded in an individual managers need to reciprocate the individual’s occupation to that of the organisational culture in this way managers need to have the ability to ‘confer identity’; for example aiding a chef to find similarities between their culture and that of the organisation. The purpose here is to identify that every organisation has a culture...
References: Glenn, S.S., 1991. Contingencies and metacontingencies: Relations among behavioural, cultural and biological evolution. In: Lamal, P. (Ed.), Behavioural Analysis of Societies and Cultural Practices. Hemisphere, London, pp. 39}71.
Hogg, M.A. and Terry, J.D. - Social identity and self categorisation processes organizational contexts in Academy Management Review (2001)
Hofstede, G., 1991
Meek, L.M., 1988. Organizational culture: origins and weaknesses. Organization Studies 9 (4), 453}473. Ogbonna, E., 1992/93. Managing organisational culture: fantasy or reality? Human resource Management 3 (2), 43}54
Ogbonna, E., 1992/93
Smircich, L., 1983. Concepts of culture and organizational analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly 28, 339}358.
Tajfel, J., 1978. Di!erentiation Between Social Groups. Academic Press, London.
Turner, J. C. 1982. Towards a cognitive redefinition of the social group. In H. Tajfel (Ed.), Social identity and inter- group relations: 15-40. Cambridge: Cambridge Univer- sity Press.
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