Extra Credit Must Knows 1

Topics: Roman Empire, Ancient Rome, Ancient Greece Pages: 21 (5424 words) Published: March 19, 2015


Alexander
336-323 B.C.E.
King of the Ancient Greek Kingdom of Macedon
Tutored by the philosopher Aristotle until the age 16
Succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of 20 Spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Asia Had created one of the largest empires in the ancient world by the age of thirty Overthrew the Persian king Darius III and conquered the entirety of the First Persian Empire Undefeated in battle and considered one of history’s most successful military commanders Conquests and spread of culture lead to the Hellenistic Age

Alexandria
City on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt founded by Alexander the Great Became the Hellenistic kingdom of the Ptolemies
Contained the famous Library and the Museum, a center for leading scientific and literary figures Merchants engaged in trade with areas bordering the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean

Angkor Wat
First a Hindu then a Buddhist temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world Built by the Khmer King Suryavaman II in the early 12th century in the capital of the Khmer Empire Used as a state temple and a mausoleum

Dedicated to Vishnu
Best preserved temple at the site
A significant religious center since its foundation

Aqueduct
A conduit, either elevated or underground, that used gravity to carry water from a source to a location – usually a city – that needed it Romans built many of these in a period of substantial urbanization Well-built structures made of large cut stones closely fitted and held together by a cement-like mortar Water flowed into a reservoir when it reached the outskirts of the city and was stored The water flowed into pipes and was distributed around the city

Artha-sastra
3000 C.E.
Ancient Indian treatise on government
Written by Kautilya, a crafty elderly Brahmin
Advisor of Chandragupta, founder of the Mauryan empire
Presents schemes for enforcing and increasing the collection of tax revenues Prescribes the use of spies
Coldly pragmatic guide to political success and survival
“My enemy’s enemy is my friend”

Ashoka
273-232 B.C.E.
Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India
Engaged in military campaigns that extended the boundaries of the empire Converted to Buddhism and preached nonviolence, morality, moderation, and religious tolerance after being overwhelmed by the brutality of his victories Broadcasted his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing

Augustus
31 B.C.E. – 41 C.E.
Honorific name of Octavian
Founder of the Roman Principate
Military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate Laid groundwork for several centuries of stability and prosperity in the Roman Empire after defeating his rivals Patience and intuitive grasp of human nature enabled him to manipulate all the groups in Roman society Allied himself with the equites

Felt it was important to appeal to Republican traditions and conceal the source and extent of his power

Bhagavad-Gita
Most important work of Indian sacred literature
Dialogue between the great warrior Arjuna and the god Krishna on duty and the fate of the spirit Attempts to depict the nature of diety by emphasizing the diversity and multiplicity of the god when, in reality, a higher unity lies behind these things Metaphor for Indian civilization and how its diversity is united by shared views and values Offers an attractive resolution to the tension in Indian civilization Popular in Hinduism

Borobodur
Mahayana Buddhist Temple in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia Consists of six square platforms topped by three circular platforms Decorated with 2672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues
The world’s largest Buddhist temple
The greatest Buddhist monuments in the world
Built in the 9th century during the reign of the Sailendra Dynasty Demonstrates the...
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