Many social factors directly or indirectly shape opinions and influence an individual’s decision to participate in physical activity. These factors change throughout an individual’s life. For example, some children start playing sport because it is fun; others may join a sporting group because their older brother or sister plays that sport. A new sporting complex may open nearby and provide a chance to try a new sport. Coaching clinics might inspire some people to give a sport a go. Teachers can provide both positive and negative sporting experiences. At school, peers can change adolescents’ attitudes about a sport that was previously enjoyed. Even students who are talented at a particular sport may quit it because a sporting career is not realistic or because of the social expectations of their gender. Work commitments, financial costs and equipment costs—such factors can have a negative effect on sports participation. Peter Figueroa, a sociologist, developed a framework to analyse racism within society, particularly to look at how equity and access to society’s resources are affected by a person’s race. This framework can also be applied to other aspects of sociology, including equity and access in sport. Figueroa’s framework explored equity and access through five levels in society: 1. cultural level
2. structural level
3. institutional level
4. interpersonal level
5. individual level.
The levels look at all aspects of society, beginning with the ‘big picture’ of society and working down to the individual. The Cultural Level
The cultural level of Figueroa’s framework includes a society’s values, beliefs and attitudes, which are the product of factors that include the social group’s history, culture and ethnic background. Society’s values, beliefs and attitudes shape and influence equity in and access to sport, for example, consider the cultural attitudes to masculinity, femininity and sport. Traditionally, sport has been seen as a...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document