1/ Write about your understanding of the basic teaching in Buddhism: The Four Noble Truths. Discuss, from the perspective of Buddhism, whether you would agree that they are Truths? ⑴ The teaching of Four Noble Truths (四聖諦)
The Four Noble Truths:
1. Doctrine of suffering (苦諦). Life is nothing but suffering. Among all happenings in a man’s life, there are typically eight different sufferings: (1) Suffering of Birth, (2) Suffering of Old Age, (3) Suffering of Sickness, (4) Suffering of Death, (5) Suffering of being apart from the loved ones, (6) Suffering being together with the despised ones, (7) Suffering of not getting what one wants, (8) Suffering of the flourishing of the Five Skandhas1 (五蘊). And Within the Buddhist tradition, the term dukkha is commonly explained according to three different patterns or categories: ①The dukkha of ordinary suffering (dukkha-dukkha) is refers to the obvious physical and mental suffering that includes birth, growing old, sickness and death. ②The dukkha produced by change (vipariṇāma-dukkha) is refers to in these changing world, the anxiety or stress of trying to hold onto things that are constantly changing. ③The dukkha of conditioned states (saṃkhāra-dukkha) is refers to a lack of satisfaction of all forms of existence due to the fact that all forms of life are changing and a sense that things never reach to our expectations or standards.
2.Doctrine of accumulation (集諦).
Each suffering has a cause. The incorrect perception of the mundane world is known as ignorance and the cause of suffering as disturbing emotions rooted in ignorance. Out of the ignorance man gives rise to desire and illusion, which in turn give rise to sufferings. In this context, it is common to identify three root disturbing emotions, called the three poisons, as the root cause of suffering. These three poisons are: ①Attachment (pali. lobha): attachment to happiness experiences. ②Anger (pali.dosa): a fear of getting what we do not want, or the situation do not get what we do want. ③Ignorance (pali.lobha): misunderstanding of the mundane world and make a confusion.
3. Doctrine of extinction (滅諦).
Buddhist believes that through diligent practice, we can cease many painful troubles from his heart and there is an end to suffering. We need to learn to get relief from illness and death, and many other "suffering" in. And this state of no suffering is known as “Nirvana” (涅槃). It is the core of "Doctrine of extinction" and it is an important concept in Buddhism. “Nirvana” is a Buddhist term that literally means "blowing out" or "extinguishing" and refers to the event or process of the extinction of the fires of attachment, aversion and ignorance, instead of extinguish the life. In the Buddhist view, when these fires are extinguished, suffering comes to an end, and “Nirvana” is a life-sublimation and purification of the soul.
4. Doctrine of path (道諦).
The core of “Doctrine of path” is to clarify and extinguish a lot of trouble to reach the path and religious practices of "Nirvana". The path to spiritual practice to reach "Nirvana" is called the Noble Eightfold Path. The eightfold path consists of: (1). Right View (正見), (2) Right Thought (正思惟), (3) Right Speech (正語), (4) Right Action (正業), (5) Right Livelihood (正命), (6) Right Effort (正精進), (7) Right Remembrance (正念), and (8) Right Concentration (正定). While the first three truths are primarily concerned with understanding the nature of suffering, anxiety, stress) and its causes, the fourth truth presents a practical method for overcoming suffering. In addition, the Eightfold Path also can divide into three categories according to the nature of the karma accumulated: ①Body: Right action, right livelihood, right effort. ②Speech: Right speech. ③Mind: Right view, right thought, right remembrance, right concentration. And we need to operate body, speech and mind in dependence on one another and take together, instead of each stage is completed...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document