Medicine through Time
An outline guide to the teaching and assessing of the Study in Development required for completion of the NEAB GCSE History Syllabus A (Schools History Project).
7.2 Study in Development:
Medicine Through Time
(Assessed in Paper 1)
The study in development should enable candidates to gain an overview of the main changes and trends in medicine from earliest limes to the present. The content, defined through the key features of the areas studied over lime, should be approached from the following perspectives:
Key issues people and developments
Key features and characteristics of the periods studied
key features of eras and developments studied
The difficulties faced by historians investigating prehistoric ideas about medicine and illness because of the lack of written evidence; the role of magic as a treatment for illness; The use of evidence provided by the Aboriginal way of life and their approach to the treatment of illness to make suggestions about ideas in prehistoric limes.
The Ancient World
The magical and rational aspects of Egyptian medicine; the connection between the Egyptians' beliefs and way of life and their treatment of illness; The importance of writing in ensuring the continuity and development of medical knowledge in the ancient world; the possible connection between the Egyptian code of hygiene and their religious practices; The influence of Egyptian doctors in the development of medicine in the ancient world.
India and China
Knowledge of anatomy and surgical practice in India; Chinese attempts to provide rational explanations for illness, including the idea of 'balance' (Yin and Yang).
(iii) Ancient Greece
The religious and rational aspects of Greek medicine, including astrology; The influence of Egyptian doctors on Creek medicine;
The connection between the beliefs and way of life of the Greek and their attitude to illness and death; The importance of Greek ideas about health in the history of medicine, especially the theory of the Four Humours; The importance of Hippocrates and the beginning of scientific ideas of diagnosis and treatment in the history of medicine.
(iv) Ancient Rome
The Roman attitude towards Greek medicine; the Roman attitude towards public health; The detailed planning and organisation which went into providing public health schemes; Possible reasons why the Roman attitude to medicine and public health was different from that of the Greeks; The influence of military considerations on Roman ideas about public health; The importance of Claudius Galen, especially his beliefs about anatomy, in the history of medicine.
The nature and importance of Islamic medicine, including the work of Rhazes and Ibn Sina (Avicenna); The influence of Christianity on ideas about the causes and the treatment of illness; The continuity of the influence of superstition and astrology on beliefs about the cause and cure of illness; The medical ideas and treatments of medieval physicians and surgeons, including Hugh and Theodoric of Lucca; The reasons why there were comparatively few changes in medicine in medieval times; the extent to which and reasons why standards of public health and hygiene deteriorated in medieval times including the development of group hygiene in monasteries, poor standards of health and hygiene in towns and the Black Death.
The Medical Renaissance (c1500AD- 1800AD)
The role of the Renaissance in art and literature and the development of printing in stimulating changes in medicine in the 15th and 16th centuries; the influence of Galen on the medical renaissance; the importance of Andreas Vesalius, Ambroise Pare and William Harvey in the history of medicine; The importance of the Italian Wars in stimulating changes in surgery; improved methods of dealing with epidemics of the...
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