This article is about the English revolution of 1688. For
the revolution of 1868 in Spain, see Glorious Revolution
(Spain). For other uses, see Glorious Revolution (disambiguation). “The Bloodless Revolution” redirects here. For a history of the vegetarian movement, see The Bloodless Revolution (book).
turned to London for a two-week period that culminated
in his ﬁnal departure for France on 23 December. By
threatening to withdraw his troops, William in February
1689 convinced a newly chosen Convention Parliament
to make him and his wife joint monarchs.
The Revolution permanently ended any chance of
Catholicism becoming re-established in England. For
British Catholics its eﬀects were disastrous both socially and politically: Catholics were denied the right to vote
and sit in the Westminster Parliament for over a century; they were also denied commissions in the army, and the monarch was forbidden to be Catholic or to marry
a Catholic, this latter prohibition remaining in force until the UK’s Succession to the Crown Act 2013 removes it once it comes into eﬀect. The Revolution led to limited toleration for Nonconformist Protestants, although it would be some time before they had full political rights. It has been argued, mainly by Whig historians, that James’s
overthrow began modern English parliamentary democracy: the Bill of Rights of 1689 has become one of the most important documents in the political history of
Britain and never since has the monarch held absolute
The Glorious Revolution,[lower-alpha 2] also called the
Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James
II of England (James VII of Scotland and James II of
Ireland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with
the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau
(William of Orange). William’s successful invasion of
England with a Dutch ﬂeet and army led to his ascending
of the English throne as William III of England jointly
with his wife Mary II of England, in conjunction with the
documentation of the Bill of Rights 1689.
King James’s policies of religious tolerance after 1685
met with increasing opposition by members of leading political circles, who were troubled by the king’s Catholicism and his close ties with France. The crisis
facing the king came to a head in 1688, with the birth
of the King’s son, James Francis Edward Stuart, on 10
June (Julian calendar).[lower-alpha 1] This changed the existing line of succession by displacing the heir presumptive, his daughter Mary, a Protestant and the wife of William
of Orange, with young James as heir apparent. The establishment of a Roman Catholic dynasty in the kingdoms now seemed likely. Some of the most inﬂuential leaders of the Tories united with members of the opposition Whigs and set out to resolve the crisis by inviting William of Orange to England, which the stadtholder,
who feared an Anglo-French alliance, had indicated as a
condition for a military intervention.
Internationally, the Revolution was related to the War of
the Grand Alliance on mainland Europe. It has been seen
as the last successful invasion of England. It ended all
attempts by England in the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th
century to subdue the Dutch Republic by military force.
However, the resulting economic integration and military co-operation between the English and Dutch navies shifted the dominance in world trade from the Dutch Republic to England and later to Great Britain. The expression “Glorious Revolution” was ﬁrst used by
John Hampden in late 1689, and is an expression that is
still used by the British Parliament. The Glorious Revolution is also occasionally termed the Bloodless Revolution, albeit inaccurately. The English Civil War (also known as the Great Rebellion) was still within living
memory for most of the major English participants in the
events of 1688, and for them, in comparison to that war
(or even the Monmouth Rebellion of...
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