* 2. The Land Located in Europe in the A egean Sea
* The first great civilization in Greece and Crete3. Brief History of Greece Around 1400It lasted roughly from 2000 BCE until 1400 BCE. was the Minoan. BCE, the Mycenaean civilization supplanted the Minoan, and dominated Greece until about 1100 BCE, when barbarians known as Durians invaded. * 4. EXTEND EARLY BEGINING OF POLIS
* 490 750-550 Age of Colonization c. 700 Homer 5. Greek Polis Time Line 479 Spartans 480 Xerxes invades Greece Athenians defeat Persians at Marathon 431 Start of 478-477 Formation of Delian League defeat Persians at Platea 413 Athenian defeat at SyracusePeloponnesian War * A community of citizens with distinctive A city state 6. What is Polis? customs, gods, and was also an object of intense religious-patriotic devotion the Greeks answer to the perennial conflict between an individual and the What are some poleis? Athens, Sparta, Thebes, Corinth, Argos,community The polis was an independent, self-governing city of between 50,000Delphi. Several dozen polises (Greek “poleis”) dotted the Greekand 300,000 people. In each polis, politics, religion, and social life were closelycountryside intertwined. * Starting around 800 BCE a7. Emergence of the Polis, or Greek City-State The Hellenicnew civilization, the Hellenic, became dominant in Greece. Thiscivilization was composed of two strands, the Dorian and the Ionian. civilization gave rise to a new form of social/political organization: the polis. * 8. Major Polis
* Two types of government were used in the Greek9. Types of Government The The Dorians generally had an oligarchic form of government. Polises. The Ionians developed the firstGreek word oligarchy means rule by the few. Democracy means rule by the people.democratic form of government. * Generally speaking, the Dorians depended upon10. Sparta and Athens The two primaryagriculture, while the Ionians were seafarers and merchants. Sparta was Dorian, oligarchic, and had anpolises were Sparta and Athens. Athens was Ionian, democratic, and depended onagriculture-based economy. seafaring and trade. * After the Persian Wars, Greece was divided into two11. The Great Wars The other was One, the Peloponnesian League, was led by Sparta. power blocs. These power blocs fought a great war, fromthe Delian League, led by Athens. The greatest challenge to Hellenic civilization came from Persia,431-404 BCE. The Greece fought two Persian wars, in 490 BCE, and in 481 BCE. to the east. Greek polises formed an The Greeks wonalliance, led by Sparta and Athens. both wars, ensuring that the roots of western civilization would include Greek thought. * During the war, the soldiers of the12. THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR, 431-404 BC ThePeloponnesian League besieged the cities of the Delian League by land. Delian League used its navies to supply itself with food, and to harass the home The Spartans and their allies finally defeated Athenscities of its enemies. and its allies. * One of the greatest13. Socrates and The Rise of Political Philosophy contributions of Hellenic Civilization was its origination of political Just before and during the Great War, an Athenian citizen,philosophy. Socrates askedSocrates, began raising questions such as, “What is justice?” these questions of his fellow citizens, in public places. * Socrates’ most famous student was Plato, who wrote the first14. Plato Plato’s most famous work is The Republic,great works of political philosophy. These Plato’s books are written as dialogues, or conversations. conversations are usually between a character named Socrates, and other Athenian In the Republic, Socrates is portrayed as talking to two young men,citizens. Adeimantus and Glaucon. * His most Plato started a school, called The Academy. 15. Aristotle Aristotle wrote many works of philosophy, andfamous student was Aristotle. made the...
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