1. The early Greek city-state was divided into four social classes and they were: eupatrids, agroikoi, demiourgoi and the slaves. Eupatrids (“sons of noble fathers”) are citizens with full legal and political rights; free adult men born legitimately of citizen of parents. They had the right to vote, be elected into office, bear arms, and the obligation to serve when at war. Agroikoi are the farmers, which had no formal political rights but full legal rights. Demiourgoi are the “public workers” in which chose to reside elsewhere (the metoikoi); they are free-born and possesses full rights in their place of origin and full legal rights but no political rights in their place of residence. They could not vote, could not be elected to office, could not bear arms and could not serve in war. The slaves were under the full possession of their owner with no privileges other what their owner would grant at will. The advantage of belonging to one class to another is having political and economical advantages. 2. The economical development complicated the traditional class system by increasing economic gap. The rich with land kept getting richer and the poor reduced to selling land, sharecropping or debt slavery. Number of “Thes” increased, contributing to large rise in “thetic” class. On top of that, due to creation of hopla (a new kind of heavy shield) and hoplite, the agrikoi and demiougoi began to break into the aristocratic ranks for larger numbers of participants/solders were necessary to conduct phalanx in war. The entitlement to participate in war, which was a privileged only to upper class, were now being “taken away” by the lower class, which contributed to public opinion debate over the traditional class system. 3. Solon defined the classes with precision laying down as the criterion the amount of land revenue, and they were: Pentakosiomedimnoi, Hippeis, Zeugetai, and Thetes. Pentakosiomedimnoi are all those who had an income of over five hundred bushels (medimnoi). Hippeis was a class made up of citizens with an income of between 500 and 300 bushels. Zeugitai were those with an income between 300 and 200 medimnoi and those who used animals to farm. People who had less bushels and with land valued at 199 or below belonged to Thetes. The upper classes benefited the most from Solon’s reform for they had access to the upper offices of the archon and treasure as a reward for taking part in the more costly choregiai.
1. This text is from “Aeschylus Oresteia” in The Furies: ANTISTROPHE 3 in which Apollo is conversing with the “chorus” in which in this text, chorus refers to slave women in the palace. Orestes is the name that belonging in the blank in the final line in this text. 2. Clytemnestra (mother of Orestes) with her lover, Aegisthus, kills her husband Agagmon. Later, Orestes kills Aegisthus as avenge for his father, violating xenia of Aegisthus. The “chorus” conducts the “manhunt” of Orestes for Orestes violated perversion of natural rules of spilling kindred blood by also killing his mother Clytemnestra. It is a crime to kill a family member, but it is also a crime not to avenge for the murdered family member. 3. According to Apollo, the “chorus” is wrong to prosecute Orestes for it is Clytemnestra’s fault to begin with by violating the marriage, the sacred mortal bond, by having an affair and killing her husband. Apollo claims that Orestes was forced to avenge and is now punished for avenging and thus recalls reconsidering the system, which lacks justice and un-ending cycle of vengeance. Apollo suggest Athena to preside over this case and protects Orestes from the “manhunt”.
1. The two male figures in the top image are Agamemnon and Aegisthus. The two male figures in the bottom are Orestes and Aegisthus. 2. The top image is a scene in which Aegisthus is striking fatal blow on Agamemnon while Clytemnestra urges him on while standing next to him in the far left....
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