TSAONE JOSEPH MMEREKI 20507763
CRITICALLY ANALYSE HUMAN TRAFFICKING AS A FORM OF VICTIMISATION
The phenomenon of human trafficking or modern-day slavery has received increased media coverage globally; this is because millions of people around the world suffer in silence under slave-like conditions of forced labour and commercial sexual exploitation from which they cannot free themselves. Human trafficking not only continues but appears to be on the rise worldwide primarily because most countries are involved in human trafficking to some extent, either as a place of recruitment, transit or the destination for trafficked individuals. This essay addresses the phenomenon of human trafficking as a form of victimisation and will define key concepts, identify and discuss victims of human trafficking and its trends. The discussion will further look in to the causes of vulnerability to trafficking, reasons for trafficking, how people get be trafficked and the responses or courses of action to reduce human trafficking. A case study of recent trafficking issue will also be provided to show the reality of the problem and lastly the conclusion will sum up the discussion in a nutshell.
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS;
2.1 HUMAN TRAFFICKING
Hodge and Lietz (2007; 163) explain that human trafficking involves the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of people, by the use of force, threat or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, and deception. It also includes the abuse of power and position by giving or receiving payments to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation as explained by Hodge and Lietz (2007; 163) include forced prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour and services, servitude and the involuntary removal of organs. In short, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime explain human trafficking as an act of recruiting, transporting, transferring, harbouring or receiving a person through a use of force, coercion or other means, for the purpose of exploiting them (UNODC, 2010).
According to Howley and Dorris (2007; 229) victims are persons who have suffered harm, including physical or mental injury, emotional suffering including grief, economic loss and/or substantial impairment of rights accorded them by the state law through acts or omissions that are in violation of the criminal law operating in the territory.
VICTIMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING
Winterdyk and Reichel (2010; 5) states that human traffickers tend to victimize the most vulnerable of the global community consisting mostly young women and children and to a certain extent men. According to Winterdyk and Reichel (2010; 5) victims live in desperate, brutal circumstances behind a wall of secrecy and deception and the victims are often sick due to physical and psychological trauma they experience especially when they try to escape. Bales (2004; 56) further elaborates that traffickers instil trauma through a sense of terror and helplessness and by destroying the victims sense of self. Perpetrators also threaten death and serious harm against victims and their families, they also isolate their victims from sources of information and emotional support where they can get help (Bales, 2004; 56). An explanation by Fichtelberg (2008; 151) clearly states that victims of human trafficking are forced into sex trade industry which includes prostitution, pornography, sex tourism, strip dancing, live-sex shows, servile marriages or illegal labour markets such as sweatshops, farm work, domestic work , industrial work, begging, child soldiers, participating in crime or other activities they did not agree to engage in. Fichtelberg (2008; 152) further elaborates that victims are often "invisible" as they are often isolated from their family members and other members of their ethnic and religious community and therefore...
References: Bales, K., (2004). _Disposable people: New slavery in the global economy_. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2010). _Human trafficking_. URL (accessed 20 March 2010): http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/what-is-human-trafficking.html
Hodge .R. & Lietz .C.A (2007). THE INTERNATIONAL SEXUAL TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN_. A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE,_ 22; 163. Affilia.
Howley, S., & Dorris, C. (2007). _Legal rights for crime victims in the criminal justice system. (3rd ed.,_ Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Lehti, M., & Aromaa, K. (2007). Trafficking in humans for sexual exploitation in Europe. _International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice 31_, 123-45.
T.K. Logan, Walker .R. & Hunt .G. (2009). UNDERSTANDING HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE UNITED STATES. _Trauma Violence Abuse;_ _10; 3;_
Hyland, K. (2001). Protecting human victims of trafficking: An American framework. _Berkeley Women 's Law_
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