Human Trafficking in the Era of Globalization

Topics: Human trafficking, Slavery, Prostitution Pages: 12 (4421 words) Published: February 19, 2011
1.0 Introduction
Human Trafficking is a crime against humanity. It involves an act of recruiting, transporting, transferring, harbouring or receiving a person through a use of force, fraud and coercion or deception, for the purpose of exploiting them. Human trafficking is a crime that violates the fundamental principles of our society. For traffickers, victims are commodities to be traded and exploited in any market. The subject of human trafficking has received an increased international attention in the past two decades. Every year, thousands of men, women and children fall into the hands of traffickers, in their own countries and abroad. Every country in the world is affected by trafficking, whether as a country of origin, transit or destination for victims. Trafficking may occur when victims are transported across borders or within a nation, or may not involve transportation at all. Victims, often women, are usually lured by promises of well-paying jobs. Once deprived of the opportunity to return home or communicate with their families, victims are generally held through force or threats in situations of sexual exploitation or forced labour. Human trafficking offenses thus transgress the victims’ human liberty in violation of the Thirteenth Amendment’s guarantee of freedom. As such, trafficking offends the core civil rights on which our Constitution and our country are based. By statute, a victim of a “severe form of trafficking in persons” is entitled to certain public programs and benefits. A severe form of trafficking must include the recruitment, harbouring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for one of the five following purposes: forced labour, sex trafficking, child labour, trafficking in children and sexual exploitation. 2.0 Forms of human trafficking

2.1 Forced labour
Forced labour is any work or services which people are forced to do against their will under the threat of some form punishment. Victims are forced to work against their own will, under the threat of violence or some other form of punishment, their freedom is restricted and a degree of ownership is exerted. Forced labour may take on several different forms. Shortly, it is the coercion of one person to perform certain types of work and the imposition of a penalty in case this work is not done. It may arise from abusive practices of recruitment, which lead to debt bondage; it may involve the imposition of military obligations to civil persons; it may be linked to traditional practices; it may involve punishment for political opinions through forced labour and, in some cases, it may assume the characteristics of slavery and slave trafficking of the past.

2.2Sex trafficking
Victims of sex trafficking can be women or men, girls or boys, but the majority are women and girls. There are a number of common patterns for luring victims into situations of sex trafficking, including: A promise of a good job in another country, a false marriage proposal turned into a bondage situation, being sold into the sex trade by parents, husbands, boyfriends and being kidnapped by traffickers. Sex traffickers frequently subject their victims to debt-bondage, an illegal practice in which the traffickers tell their victims that they owe money (often relating to the victims’ living expenses and transport into the country) and that they must pledge their personal services to repay the debt. Sex traffickers use a variety of methods to “condition” their victims including starvation, confinement, beatings, physical abuse, rape, gang rape, threats of violence to the victims and the victims’ families, forced drug use and the threat of shaming their victims by revealing their activities to their family and their families’ friends. Victims face numerous health risks. Physical risks include drug and alcohol addiction; physical injuries; traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting in memory loss, dizziness, headaches, numbness; sexually transmitted diseases...
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