Impact of Organizational Structure and Culture on Job Satisfaction, Job Stress and Employee Motivation: a Survey of Existing Litreature

Topics: Organizational commitment, Organizational studies, Organizational studies and human resource management Pages: 17 (5345 words) Published: June 5, 2011
Measurement issues in the Meyer & Allen model of organizational commitment

Steve Jaros
Southern University

Paper to be presented at the 2007 Academy of Management Meetings.

The Meyer/Allen three-component model of commitment arguably dominates organizational commitment research. Given its widespread use, the measures used to tap the affective, continuance, and normative commitment constructs merit close scrutiny. This paper will outline some of the key measurement problems and challenges associated with this model, and present recommendations for future research. First, I discuss the degree to which the three Meyer and Allen scales, the ACS, the CCS, and the NCS, tap their associated affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment constructs. Next, I discuss some measurement issues that pertain specifically to normative commitment. Third, I offer a discussion of measurement issues that pertain specifically to continuance commitment. I conclude with some comments about the model's generalizability and relationship with recently-developed work attitudes that may overlap its conceptual domain.

I. Degree of correspondence between the ACS, CCS, and NCS and Meyer & Herscovitch's (2001) conceptualizations of the underlying constructs How well do the ACS, CCS, and NCS reflect the underlying affective, normative, and continuance commitment constructs? In this section, I argue that there are some discrepancies between these scales and the constructs, as defined by Meyer & Herscovitch (2001) and, with respect to normative commitment, Meyer, Becker, & Van Dick (2006), that they are designed to reflect. Meyer & Herscovitch's definitions of commitment. Meyer & Herscovitch (2001) propose that commitment is “a force that binds an individual to a course of action of relevance to one or more targets.” Employees are theorized to experience this force in the form of three mindsets: affective, normative, and continuance, which reflect emotional ties, perceived obligation, and perceived sunk costs in relation to a target, respectively. In addition to these mindsets, their concept of commitment also includes the notions of focal and discretionary behavior. A focal behavior is one believed to be integral to the concept of commitment to a particular target, such that all three mindsets should predict this behavior. In contrast, discretionary behaviors are 'optional', in the sense that some mindsets, but not others, may predict these behaviors. For organizational commitment, the focal behavior is theorized to be maintaining membership in the organization. One key measurement difference between the two kinds of behaviors is that Meyer and Herscovitch argue that a commitment’s focal behavior should be referenced in the scale items used to measure each commitment mindset, whereas discretionary behaviors should not be. Thus, the basic form of an organizational commitment item should be that it is worded to reflect (a) the mindset, (b) the target of commitment, in this case the organization, and (c) the focal behavior, in this case remaining a member of the organization. Comparing the ACS, NCS, and CCS to the Meyer and Herscovitch conceptualization. Let's consider each scale in light of the above conceptualization: Looking at the eight items of the original NCS (see the Appendix for the original ACS, NCS, and CCS scales items, with my notes), it appears to me that all eight items reference the organization, and also seemingly tap the mindset of 'obligation'. Additionally, it appears that five of the eight items directly reference staying/leaving, while the remaining three items indirectly reference it (they mention remaining loyal, which many respondents might interpret to encompass remaining with the organization). Although this scale is not reproduced here, I also looked at the 1993 revised NCS, and in my opinion four of the six items...

References: Allen, N. 2003. Organizational commitment in the military: A discussion of theory and practice. Military Psychology, 15: 237-253.
Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of
affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization.
Bergman, M. (2006). The relationship between affective and
normative commitment: review and research agenda
Bozeman, D.B., & Perrewe, P.L. (2001). The effect of item content overlap on Organisational Commitment Questionnaire - turnover cognitions relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86: 16-25.
Chen, Z. & Francesco, A. (2003). The relationship between 3-component commitment and employee performance in China. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62: 490- 510.
Coyle-Shapiro, J.A.-M., Morrow, P.C. (2006). Organizational and client commitment
among contracted employees
Dawley, D., Stephens, R. & Stephens, D. (2005). Dimensionality of organizatio commitment
in volunteer workers: Chamber of commerce board members and role fulfillment
Harrison, D., Newman, D. & Roth, P. (2006). How important are job attitudes? Meta- analytic comparisons of integrative behavioral outcomes and time sequences. Academy of Management Journal, 49: 305-325.
Jackson, C., Colquitt, J., Wesson, M., & Zapata-Phelan, C. (2006). Psychological collectivism: A measurement validation and linkage to group performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 884-899.
Mackenzie, S., Podsakoff, P., & Jarvis, C. (2005). The Problem of measurement mod misspecification in behavioral and organizational research and some recommended
solutions
Lee, T., Mitchell, T., Sablynski, C., Burton, J., & Holtom, B. (2004). The effects of j embeddedness on organizational citizenship, job performance, volitional absences, and
voluntary turnover
Mayer, R. & Schoorman, F. (1996). Differentiating antecedents of organizational commitment: a test of March and Simon 's model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19: 15-28.
Meyer, J. & Allen, N. (1997). Commitment in the Workplace. Sage: Thousand Oaks.
Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Smith, C., (1993). Commitment to organizations
and occupations: Extension and test of a three-component
Meyer, J., Becker, T., & Van Dick, R. (2006). Social identities and commitments at
work: toward an integrative model
Meyer, J. P., & Herscovitch, L. (2001). Commitment in the workplace:
Toward a general model
Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002).
Mitchell, T. R., Holtom, B. C., Lee, T. W., Sablynski, C. J., & Erez, M. (2001). Why people stay: Using job embeddedness to predict voluntary turnover. Academy of
Management Journal, 44: 1102–1121.
Ng, T., & Feldman, D. 2007. Organizational embeddedness and occupational embeddedness across career stages. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70: 336-351.
Powell, D. & Meyer, J. 2004. Side-bet theory and the three-component
model of organizational commitment
Rousseau, D. M., & Wade-Benzoni, K. A. (1995). Changing individual- organizational attachments: A two-way street. In A. Howard (Ed.), The Changing Nature of Work. New York: Jossey-Bass.
Wasti, S. (2003). Affective and continuance commitment to the organization: Test of an integrated model in the Turkish context. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26: 525-550.
Wasti, S. A. (2005). Commitment profiles: Combinations of organizational commitment forms
and job outcomes
Wiener, Y. 1982. Commitment in organizations: A normative view. Academy of Management Review, 7, 418–428.
Appendix: Commitment Scale Items (from Allen & Meyer, 1990):
Affective Commitment Scale items
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Impact of Organizational Structure and Culture on Job Satisfaction, Job Stress and Employee Motivation: a Survey of Existing Litreature...
  • Job Satisfaction, Stress, and Motivation: Essay
  • Job Satisfaction, Motivation and Stress in the WorkPlace Essay
  • Organizational Commitment: Job Satisfaction, Stress, Motivation Essay
  • Job Satisfaction in Organizational Psychology Essay
  • Job Satisfaction Essay
  • Impact of Organizational Communication in Job Essay
  • Essay about Impact of Motivation on Employee Job Performance

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free