Review of literature
The literature on employee engagement builds on earlier research and discussion on issues of commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), but means more than what these terms encapsulate. The defining distinction is that employee engagement is a two-way interaction between the employee and the employer, whereas the earlier focus tended to view the issues from only the employee’s point of view.
Definitions of engagement ,or characteristics of an engaged workforce, focus on motivation, satisfaction ,commitment , finding meaning at work, pride and advocacy of the organization (in terms of advocating/recommending either the products or services of the organization, or as a place to work ).additionally , having some connection to the organization’s overall strategy and objectives and both wanting and being able to work to achieve them, are key elements of engagement. A recurring theme in the literature is the idea that engagement involves workers ‘going the extra mile’ , and exerting discretionary effort over what is normally expected.
An organization’s productivity is measured not in terms of employee satisfaction but in terms of employee engagement . employees are said to be engaged when they show a positive attitude towards the engagement and express a commitment to remain with the organization. It is the level of commitment and involvement an employee has towards the organization and its values. An engaged employee is aware of the business context and works with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the benefit of the organization.
1. csikszentmihalyi (1975) studied the effect of engagement in organizational behavior is the notion of flow. He defines ‘flow’ as the holistic sensation that people feel when they act with total involvement. Flow ii the state in which there is little distinction between the self and environment . when individuals are in flow state little conscious control is necessary for their actions. Employee engagement is thus the level of commitment and involvement an employee has towards their organization and its value. The organization must work to develop and nurture engagement which requires a two way relationship between employer and employee. Thus employee engagement is a barometer that determines the association of a person with the organization.
2. khan (1990) studied the effect of Engagement at work where as the engagement people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively and emotionally during role performances. He described employee engagement in his psychological literature as different from other employee role constructs such as job involvement , commitment or intrinsic motivation, asserting that it focused on how psychological experiences of work shape the process of people presenting and absenting themselves during task performances. Khan argued that engagement was a multidimensional construct in that employees could be emotionally, cognitively or physically engaged. For psychological engagement and organizational behaviors, the two major dimensions were emotional and cognitive engagement . employees could be engaged on one dimension and not the other. The more engaged an employee was on each dimension, the higher his/her overall personal engagement. Khan asserted that employees experienced dimensions of personal engagement or disengagement during daily tasks. Engagement occurred when one was cognitively vigilant and/or emotionally connected to others. Disengaged employees uncoupled themselves from roles and withdrew cognitively and emotionally. They displayed incomplete role performances and were effortless, automatic or robotic.
3.Gallup (1999) study consist on more than 30 years of in-depth behavioral economic research involving more than 17 million employees. This research has appeared in prestigious business and scientific publications, including the journal...
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