I - LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, students should be able to:
1. Describe what managers do.
2. Define organizational behavior (OB.)
3. Explain the value of the systematic study of OB.
4. Identify the contributions made to OB by major behavioral science disciplines. 5. List the major challenges and opportunities for managers to use OB concepts. 6. Identify the three levels of analysis in this book’s OB model. 7. Explain the need for a contingency approach to the study of OB.
II - CHAPTER NOTES
I. What Managers Do
• Importance of developing managers’ interpersonal skills o Companies with reputations as a good place to work—such as Pfizer, Lincoln Electric, Southwest Airlines, and Starbucks—have a big advantage when attracting high performing employees. o A recent national study of the U.S. workforce found that: ➢ Wages and fringe benefits are not the reason people like their jobs or stay with an employer. ➢ More important to workers is the job quality and the supportiveness of the work environments. ➢ Managers’ good interpersonal skills are likely to make the workplace more pleasant, which in turn makes it easier to hire and retain high performing employees. In fact, creating a more pleasant work environment makes good economic sense. • Definitions
o Manager: Someone who gets things done through other people. They make decisions, allocate resources, and direct the activities of others to attain goals. o Organization: A consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
• French industrialist Henri Fayol wrote that all managers perform five management functions: plan, organize, command, coordinate, and control. Modern management scholars have condensed to these functions to four: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. o Planning requires a manager to:
➢ Define goals (organizational, departmental, worker levels). ➢ Establish an overall strategy for achieving those goals. ➢ Develop a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities. o Organizing requires a manager to:
➢ Determine what tasks are to be done. ➢ Who is to be assigned the tasks. ➢ How the tasks are to be grouped. ➢ Determine who reports to whom. ➢ Determine where decisions are to be made (centralized/ decentralized) o Leading requires a manager to:
➢ Motivate employee.
➢ Direct the activities of others. ➢ Select the most effective communication channels. ➢ Resolve conflicts among members. o Controlling requires a manager to:
➢ Monitor the organization’s performance. ➢ Compare actual performance with the previously set goals. ➢ Correct significant deviations. C.
• In the late 1960s, Henry Mintzberg studied five executives to determine what managers did on their jobs. He concluded that managers perform ten different, highly interrelated roles or sets of behaviors attributable to their jobs. • The ten roles can be grouped as being primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships, the transfer of information, and decision...
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