- refer to teachings passed on from a teacher to a follower(disciple) - Samsara or the endless cycle of birth and death is their way of understanding the problems that human beings face. - Karma, the law that every action has its effect is tied with the endless samsara cycle. In short, what one does causes consequences to happen. - According to the Upanishads, it is knowledge of the Brahman(the one, the real) that brings moksha(freedom) for the atman from the cycle of samsara.
Four Noble Truths:
1. Noble Truth of Sorrow (Dukkha)
– about suffering and sorrow.
- Real happiness cannot be found in this world for the world deceives man with illusions of pleasures. The happiness that is usually experienced is attached to material pleasures that fulfill some worldly desires. - According to Buddha, non-attachment to material, worldly pleasures offers a greater bliss, a more permanent source of happiness.
2. Noble Truth of the Arising of Sorrow (Samudaya)
–The reason for the suffering is the craving, clinging or attachment. - It is the craving that leads to repeated births (samsara). - Suffering and craving can only be removed by following the middle path, thereby attaining the supreme bliss of nirvana.
3. Noble Truth of the Stopping of Sorrow (Nirodha)
- deals with the complete stopping of the suffering, thereby attaining nirvana, which is the goal of all Buddhists. - It can only be achieved by total removal of all forms of craving. - This truth can only be realized through developing the Noble Eightfold Path, the fourth noble truth. The Eightfold Path avoids the extreme of self-mortification that weakens one’s mental functioning and the extreme of self-indulgence that retards a person’s moral progress.
- Confucianism was not founded by Confucius nor did it begin with him but rather he considered himself to be a transmitter of the meaning and significance of rituals. - He believed in the power of culture...
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