Definition and Explanation of Key Terms
In the context of organizational behavior, following the view that a cohesive group is more than the sum of its parts, synergy is the ability of a group to outperform even its best individual member. These conclusions are derived from the studies conducted by Jay Hall on a number of laboratory-based group ranking and prediction tasks. He found that effective groups actively looked for the points in which they disagreed and in consequence encouraged conflicts amongst the participants in the early stages of the discussion. In contrast, the ineffective groups felt a need to establish a common view quickly, used simple decision making methods such as averaging, and focused on completing the task rather than on finding solutions they could agree on. In a technical context, its meaning is a construct or collection of different elements working together to produce results not obtainable by any of the elements alone. The elements, or parts, can include people, hardware, software, facilities, policies, documents: all things required to produce system-level results. The value added by the system as a whole, beyond that contributed independently by the parts, is created primarily by the relationship among the parts, that is, how they are interconnected. In essence, a system constitutes a set of interrelated components working together with a common objective: fulfilling some designated need.
Organization is composed of two or more people who work together in a structured way to achieve a specific goal or set of goals (Stoner et al). According to Aluko (2003) an organization is defined as basically a structure for carrying out a particular social activity on a regular basis. Generally it has the following features: - A specific goal
- A defined membership
- Rules of behavior or conduct and authority relationships.
Malik et al (2011) mentioned in their paper that a composition of people, which formulate independent business identity for some specific purpose, is commonly known as, organization and getting desired outcome within defined resources is treated as effectiveness.
Effectiveness is the ability to determine appropriate objectives: “doing the right things” (Stoner et al). According to Scott et al (2008) at its simplest, “effectiveness is the likelihood of achieving the intended objectives of an activity, policy or other intervention. They also quoted another definition as: “the extent to which a development intervention has attained, or is expected to attain, its relevant objectives”.
Another relevant concept with effectiveness is efficiency. Efficiency is the ability to minimize the use of resources in achieving organizational objectives. It is doing things right (Stoner et al). Scott et al (2008) are of the opinion that the term effectiveness is often contrasted with that of efficiency. Efficiency focuses on the input-output relationship, as opposed to outputs and outcomes. High efficiency would be exemplified by the delivery of a large number of forgiven inputs. However, these outputs may not necessarily produce the desired outcomes. Effectiveness is doing the right things and efficiency is doing things right (Stoner et al).
Different researchers have different thoughts about performance Shahzad et al (2012). An Anonymous writer has defined “performance” as all the activity of a given participant on a given occasion, which serves to influence in any way any of the other participants. This is usually considered to be a broader term than effectiveness and includes efficiency and behavior. However, in practice, these terms are often used interchangeably Scott et al (2008). Shahzad et al (2012) revealed referring Cascio, (2006) and Stannack, (1996) that performance refers to the degree of achievement of the mission at work place that builds up an employee’s job. Mostly researcher’s used the term...
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