Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior Assignment Set- 1 Q.1Write a note on the managerial roles and skills.Ans.
According to Mintzberg (1973), managerial roles are as follows: 1. Informational roles2. Decisional roles3. Interpersonal roles 1.Informational roles:
This involves the role of assimilating anddisseminating information as and when required. Following are the main sub-roles, which managers often perform:a. Monitor – collecting information from organizations, both from inside andoutside of the organizationb. Disseminator – communicating information to organizational membersc. Spokesperson – representing the organization to outsiders 2. Decisional roles:
It involves decision making. Again, this role can be sub-divided in to the followinga. Entrepreneur – initiating new ideas to improve organizational performanceb.Disturbance handlers – taking corrective action to cope with adverse situationc. Resource allocators – allocating human, physical, and monetary resourcesd. Negotiator – negotiating with trade unions, or any other stakeholders 3. Interpersonal roles:
This role involves activities with people working in theorganization. This is supportive role for informational and decisional roles.Interpersonal roles can be categorized under three sub-headings:a. Figurehead – Ceremonial and symbolic roleb. Leadership – leading organization in terms of recruiting, motivating etc.c. Liaison – liaisoning with external bodies and public relations activities.
Katz (1974) has identified three essential managementskills: technical, human, and conceptual. Technical skills:
The ability is to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. All jobs require some specialized expertise, and many people develop their technicalskills on the job. Vocational and on-the-job training programs can be used todevelop this type of skill. Human Skill:
the ability to work with, understand and motivate other people (both individually and a group). This requires sensitivity towards othersissues and concerns. People, who are proficient in technical skill, but not withinterpersonal skills, may face difficulty to manage their subordinates. To acquirethe Human Skill, it is pertinent to recognize the feelings and sentiments of others,ability to motivate others even in adverse situation, and communicate ownfeelings to others in a positive and inspiring way. Conceptual Skill:
This is an ability to critically analyze, diagnose a situation andforward a feasible solution. It requires creative thinking, generating options andchoosing the best available option. Q.2Discuss the methods of shaping behavior in detail.Ans.Shaping Behavior When a systematic attempt is made to change individuals’ behavior by directingtheir learning in graduated steps, it is called shaping behavior. There are four methods of Shaping Behavior. They are as follows: 1. Positive reinforcement
– This is the process of getting something pleasantas a consequence of a desired behavior, to strengthen the same behavior. For example, one get a commission, if he/she achieves sales target.For example,i) Bonuses paid at the end of a successful business year are an example of positive reinforcement.
ii) Employees will work hard for a raise or a promotion.iii) Salesmen will increase their efforts to get rewards and bonuses.iv) Students will study to get good grades, andv) In these examples, the rises, promotions, awards, bonuses, good grades, arepositive reinforces. 2. Negative reinforcement
– This is the process of having a reward taken awayas a consequence of a undesired behavior. For example, scholarship iswithdrawn from the student who has not done well on the examination. Just aspeople engage in behaviors in order to get positive reinforces, they also engagein behaviors to avoid or escape unpleasant conditions. Terminating anunpleasant stimulus in order to strengthen or increase the probability of...
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