OB ASSESSMENT draft

Topics: Organizational culture, Organizational structure, Organizational studies and human resource management Pages: 14 (3247 words) Published: December 21, 2014
Table of Contents

Page
1. Title Page……………………………………………………………………………………I

2. Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………..II

3. Introduction to Assessment Question……………………………………………………III

4. Discussion on topic………………………………………………………………………...IV

Impact of Structure on Motivation
Impact of Culture on Motivation
How does National Culture affect Organizational Culture
What are the Implications for Motivation
How does National and/or Organizational Culture Impact Structure (or vice versa) and therein Motivation

5. Conclusion………….………………………………………………………………………..X

6. References………………………………………………………………………………....XII

1. Introduction
In order to discuss how organisational structure and culture (organisational and/ or country) may influence (positively or negatively) motivation of individuals in organisations, secondary based research was done and key theories will be cited from academic texts and journals for analysis purposes. “An organization, is an assembly of people working together to achieve common objectives through a division of labour”. Reference for Business (1999) Encyclopaedia of Business, 2nd ed. [online] Structure helps influence behaviour and relationships of jobs and functions. It is like a ‘two-edged’ sword in the sense that what works for one employee, might not work for another. Therefore, Organisational Structure defines the organisation’s hierarchy of people and departments, how job tasks are formally divided, as well as how information flows within the organization, as stated in Mullins (2007, p. 564). Culture can be defined as the interweaving individuals into a community. It is the values, norms, beliefs and customs that an individual holds common with members of a social group or unit. Hence the fact that Organizational Culture is a main element for promoting an innovative environment through motivation. It represents major changes in “the way we do things around here”. Mullins L. J. (2007) described Motivation as “The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal”. There are three (3) categories of Traditional Motivation Theories and one (1) Contemporary Motivation Theory that would be used in analysing this process as seen in table (1) below: - TRADITIONAL MOTIVATION THEORIES

CONTEMPORARY MOTIVATION THEORIES
Content Theories (Hierarchy of needs; ERG; Two-factor and Acquired needs theory) Organisational Justice Theory (Refinement of Equity Theory)
Process Theories (Equity; Expectancy and Goal-setting theory)

Reinforcement Theories (Positive and Negative Reinforcement; Punishment and Extinction Theory)

Table (1) representing the different categories of ‘Traditional and Contemporary Theories’ 2. Discussion
For ease of analysis in order to understand how organisational structure and culture may influence motivation of individuals in organisations (positively or negatively), a discussion between some of these traditional and contemporary theories from table (1) will be explained in table (2) as seen below:- Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory

(Content Theory) /
(Traditional Theory)
The Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory addresses the needs of employees one by one, the physiological needs have to be satisfied first, before the employee shifts on to the next need levels, which will be safety need, sense of belongingness, self-esteem and finally the self-actualization need. For instance the Organisation, the lower level employees will be more interested in the base salary or adequate work environment they get, however, as you go up the management hierarchy, the middle-level employees are motivated to perform well if they have achieved the sense of belongingness and self-esteem in the organization along with satisfaction of physiological need. Adequate base salary is not enough, and the company will have to use other approaches such as increased participation and teamwork to give them a...
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