P4 Explain two theories of ageing Disengagement Theory Cumming and Henry Engagement To be involved
Association To be interested
To make a contribution
To pull away
To isolate away
Disengagement theory 1961
Elaine Cumming and William henry stated that old people will naturally isolate themselves as they age. Cumming – According to Cumming older people will become more 'individual' as they have grown up and this process is natural for elderly people. They also start caring less about people views and opinions on them. Many people agreed with the disarrangement theory. Bromley stated it was 'bound to happen', no matter how much we try and avoid it. “Old people have neither the physical nor the mental resources they had when young”...(Health and Social Care Book 1, Amy Whitehouse PG, 170) Some issues can be the reason for elderly people to disengage and pull away. These issues can be things like;
Physical abilities – disabilities, poor mobility or difficulties hearing/seeing can cause barriers to socialising. They may feel embarrassed or discriminated against so they might think its better to not socialise. Geographical memory- they may feel alone and left out if family members move away. This will make them less motivated to socialise with others as they may feel like they would probably move away as well. They may feel scared of losing more people. Retirement- they may give up on socialising as they might not keep in-touch with former collages and people from work. They won’t feel motivated enough. Ill-health of friends and relatives- their friends may stop keeping in contact with them as they have physical abilities and illness issues. Travel and technology- older people may find it harder to keep up with all the new technology and how its used. They may feel embarrassed about trying to participate and may feel “too old” for the new technology. They might not have access to a car or may feel pressured in public so they limit going out and socialising. They may also feel discriminated against or judged by the public. On the other hand Zimbardo 1992 disagreed with the disengagement theory and stated that some elderly people still engage in social activities. Although they still engage with people they know and are used to instead of making new friends this may still mean that they are engaged. The activity theory
The activity theory was developed by Bromley during1996 in response to the disengagement theory. It suggests that old people can avoid disengagement when they stay active and maintain social interactions by enjoying the company of others. The activity theory of ageing proposes that older adults are happiest when they stay active, particularly when it is purposeful as it encourages the elderly to replace 'lost life roles' after retirement and, therefore, keep up an interest in life. Bromley also said that its essential to avoid disengagement in order to prevent stagnation and loss of mental as well as physical skills.
M2 Discuss two major theories of ageing in relation to the development of the individual Case Study 1- Mrs Thompson
Mrs Thompson is a 70 year old retired midwife that lives on the outskirts of a large town in the north of London. Although Mrs Thompson has been feeling lonely since she lost her husband, she still remains active by attending fit classes and different types of events. Mrs Thompson is more likely to avoid...
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