Perceived Organizational Support

Topics: Organizational studies and human resource management, Job satisfaction, Factor analysis Pages: 27 (9234 words) Published: June 11, 2013
Journal of Vocational Behavior 63 (2003) 438–456 www.elsevier.com/locate/jvb

Perceived organizational support as a mediator of the relationship between politics perceptions and work outcomes Wayne A. Hochwarter,a,* Charles Kacmar,b Pamela L. Perrew,a e c and Diane Johnson Department of Management, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-1110, USA Department of Management Information Systems, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-1110, USA Department of Management and Marketing, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0225, USA b a

c

Received 27 February 2002

Abstract The present study investigates the mediating potential of perceived organizational support (POS) on politics perceptions–work outcomes relationships. Consistent with previous research, individuals were able to discriminate political activity at more than one level (i.e., at the highest level in the organization, one level up from oneÕs current level, and at oneÕs current level). Further, politics perceived at one level up from oneÕs current level and politics at the highest levels in the organization were negatively related to perceived organizational support. In addition, POS was related to job satisfaction, performance, affective commitment and jobinduced tension providing support for mediation. Implications of these findings, strengths and limitations, and potential avenues for future research are provided. Ó 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved. Keywords: Politics perceptions; Perceived organizational support; Work outcomes

Corresponding author. Fax: 1-850-644-7843. E-mail addresses: whochwar@cob.fsu.edu (W.A. Hochwarter), ckacmar@cob.fsu.edu (C. Kacmar), pperrew@cob.fsu.edu (P.L. Perrew), djohnson@cob.ua.edu (D. Johnson). e 0001-8791/$ - see front matter Ó 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0001-8791(02)00048-9

*

W.A. Hochwarter et al. / Journal of Vocational Behavior 63 (2003) 438–456

439

1. Introduction Significant reviews of the literature have linked perceptions of politics with a host of negative outcomes (Ferris & Judge, 1991; Kacmar & Baron, 1999). What is currently lacking in the literature, however, is empirical substantiation of why these adverse relationships exist. Instead of examining theoretically relevant mediators of politics perceptions–work outcomes relationships, researchers have assumed that the self-serving nature of politicking inherently leads to conflict (Drory & Romm, 1988), which, in turn leads to negative consequences. We contend that a fundamental reason politics perceptions lead to unfavorable outcomes is because confidence that the organization values the employeeÕs contribution is eroded in environments fraught with politics. Further, politics perceptions have the potential to cultivate negative reactions since individuals question the organizationÕs motivation to protect their psychological safety and well-being. In sum, we contend that perceived organizational support (POS) serves as an important intermediate linkage between politics perceptions and work outcomes. The goal of the current study is to examine the mediating potential of POS on various politics perceptions–work outcomes relationships. Further, we examine politics perceptions at multiple hierarchical levels. Maslyn and Fedor (1998) suggest that politics perceptions may have differential effects depending upon the hierarchical level in the organization. In this study, three levels of politics perceptions are assessed: at the highest level in the organization, at one level up from oneÕs current level, and at oneÕs current level.

2. Organizational politics and perceived organizational support It has long been suggested that work represents a reciprocal relationship where employees provide effort in exchange for both tangible rewards such as pay and benefits and socioemotional benefits such as appreciation and esteem (Angle & Perry, 1983; Levinson, 1965; March & Simon, 1958)....

References: Allen, D., Shore, L., & Griffeth, R. (1998). A model of perceived organizational support. Unpublished manuscript. University of Memphis and Georgia State University. Allen, N., & Meyer, J. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1–17. Allen, R. W., Madison, D. L., Porter, L. W., Renwick, P. A., & Mayes, B. T. (1979). Organizational politics: Tactics and characteristics of its actors. California Management Review, 22, 77–83. Anderson, J., C, & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 411–423. Angle, H., & Perry, J. (1983). Organizational commitment: Individual and organizational influences. Work and Occupations, 10, 123–146. Bagozzi, R. P., Yi, Y., & Phillips, L. W. (1991). Assessing construct validity in organizational research. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 421–458. Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley. Brayfield, A., & Rothe, H. (1951). An index of job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 35, 307–311. Cotterell, N., Eisenberger, R., & Speicher, H. (1992). Inhibiting effects of reciprocation wariness on interpersonal relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 658–668. Cropanzano, R., Howes, J. C., Grandey, A. A., & Toth, P. (1997). The relationship of organizational politics and support to work behaviors, attitudes, and stress. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 159–180. Cropanzano, R., James, K., & Konovsky, M. (1993). Dispositional affectivity as a predictor of work attitudes and job performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 595–607. Cropanzano, R. S., Kacmar, K. M., & Bozeman, D. P. (1995). Organizational politics, justice, and support: Their differences and similarities. In R. S. Cropanzano & K. M. Kacmar (Eds.), Organizational politics, justice, and support: Managing the social climate of the workplace (pp. 2–18). Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13, 319–340. Drory, A., & Romm, T. (1988). Politics in organizations and its perceptions in the organization. Organizational Studies, 9, 165–179. Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkle, B., Lynch, P., & Rhoades, L. (2001). Reciprocity of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 42–51.
W.A. Hochwarter et al. / Journal of Vocational Behavior 63 (2003) 438–456
455
Eisenberger, R., Cotterell, N., & Marvel, J. (1987). Reciprocation ideology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 743–750. Eisenberger, R., Cummings, J., Armeli, S., & Lynch, P. (1997). Perceived organizational support, discretionary treatment, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 812–820. Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P., & Davis-LaMastro, V. (1990). Effects of perceived organizational support on employee diligence, innovation, and commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 53, 51–59. Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Huntington, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 500–507. Eisenberger, R., Stinglhamber, F., Vandenberghe, C., Sucharski, I., & Rhoades, L. (2002). Perceived organizational support: Contribution to perceived organization support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 565–573. Ferris, G. R., & Judge, T. A. (1991). Personnel/human resources management: A political influence perspective. Journal of Management, 17, 447–488. Ferris, G. R., & Kacmar, K. M. (1992). Perceptions of organizational politics. Journal of Management, 18, 93–116. Ferris, G. R., Russ, G. S., & Fandt, P. M. (1989). Politics in organizations. In R. A. Giacalone & P. Rosenfeld (Eds.), Impression management in the organization (pp. 143–170). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Ferris, G. R., Frink, D. D., Galang, M. C., Zhou, J., Kacmar, K. M., & Howard, J. L. (1996). Perceptions of organizational politics: Predictors, stress-related implications, and outcomes. Human Relations, 49, 233–266. Gandz, J., & Murray, V. (1980). The experience of workplace politics. Academy of Management Journal, 23, 237–251. Gouldner, A. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 25, 161–178. Guzzo, R., Noonan, K., & Elron, E. (1994). Expatriate managers and the psychological contract. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 617–626. Hochwarter, W. (in press). The interactive effects of pro-political behavior and politics perceptions on job satisfaction and affective commitment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. e Hochwarter, W., Perrew , P., Ferris, G., & Guerico, R. (1999). Commitment as an antidote to the tension and turnover consequences of organizational politics. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 55, 277–297. House, R., & Rizzo, J. (1972). Toward the measurement of organizational practices: Scale development and validation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 56, 338–396. Jaccard, J., & Wan, C. (1996). LISREL approaches to interaction effects in multiple regression. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Kacmar, K. M., & Baron, R. A. (1999). Organizational politics: The state of the field, links to related processes, and an agenda for future research. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management (vol.17, pp. 1–39). Stamford, CT: JAI Press. Kacmar, K., & Carlson, D. (1997). Further validation of the Perceptions of Politics Scale (POPS): A multiple sample investigation. Journal of Management, 23, 627–658. Kacmar, K. M., Bozeman, D. P., Carlson, D. S., & Anthony, W. P. (1999). A partial test of the perceptions of organizational politics model. Human Relations, 52, 383–416. Kelloway, K. (1998). Using LISREL for structural equation modeling: A researcherÕs guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Kenny, D., Kashy, D., & Bolger, N. (1998). Data analysis in social psychology. In D. Gilbert, S. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (pp. 233–265). New York: McGraw-Hill. Kim, J., & Mueller, C. (1978). Factor analysis: Statistical methods and practical issues. New York: Sage Publications. Levinson, H. (1965). Reciprocation: The relationship between man and organization. Administrative Science Quarterly, 9, 370–390. Lynch, P., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, R. (1999). Perceived organizational support: Inferior versus superior performance by wary employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 467–483. March, J., & Simon, H. (1958). Organizations. New York: Wiley.
456
W.A. Hochwarter et al. / Journal of Vocational Behavior 63 (2003) 438–456
Maslyn, J., & Fedor, D. B. (1998). Perceptions of politics: Does measuring different foci matter? Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 645–653. Masterson, S., Lewis, K., Goldman, B., & Taylor, S. (2000). Integrating justice and social exchange: The differing effects of fair procedures and treatment on work relationships. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 738–748. Mintzberg, H. (1983). Power in and around organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Moorman, R., Blakely, G., & Niehoff, B. (1998). Does perceived organizational support mediate the relationship between procedural justice and organizational citizenship behavior? Academy of Management Journal, 41, 351–357. Parker, C., Dipboye, R., & Jackson, S. (1995). Perceptions of organizational politics: An investigation of antecedents and consequences. Journal of Management, 21, 891–912. Porter, L. W., Allen, R. W., & Angle, H. L. (1981). The politics of upward influence in organizations. In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (vol. 3, pp. 109–149). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 698–714. Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, S. (2001). Affective commitment to the organization: The contribution of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 825–836. Robinson, S., & Morrison, E. (1995). Psychological contracts and OCB: The effect of unfulfilled obligations on civic virtue behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16, 289–298. Rousseau, D. (1989). Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee Rights and Responsibilities Journal, 2, 121–139. Rousseau, D. (1990). New hire perceptions of their own and their employerÕs obligations: A study of psychological contracts. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11, 389–400. Schwab, D. P. (1980). Construct validity in organizational behavior. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior (vol. 2, pp. 3–43). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Shore, L. M., & Shore, T. H. (1995). Perceived organizational support and organizational justice. In R. S. Cropanzano & K. M. Kacmar (Eds.), Organizational politics, justice, and support: Managing the social climate of the workplace (pp. 149–164). Westport, CT: Quorum. Shore, L., & Tetrick, L. (1991). A construct validation study of the survey of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 637–643. Sparrowe, R., Liden, R., Wayne, S., & Kraimer, M. (2001). Social networks and the performance of individuals and groups. Academy of Management Journal, 44, 316–325. Wayne, S., Shore, L., & Liden, R. (1997). Perceived organizational support and leader–member exchange: A social exchange perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40, 82–111. Wright, P., Kacmar, K., McMahan, G., & Deleeuw, K. (1995). P ¼ f(M x A): Cognitive ability as a moderator of the relationship between personality and performance. Journal of Management, 21, 1129–1140.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • perceived organizational support Essay
  • Essay about The Role of Perceived Organizational Support and Supportive Human Resource Practices on Hourly (Non-Exempt) Retail Hr Employee...
  • How to Support Organizational Communication Essay
  • Essay about support
  • Organizational Psychology Essay
  • Organizational Behavior Essay
  • Organizational Behaviors Essay
  • Organizational Behavior Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free