reaction paper for rizal movie

Topics: Old age, Gerontology, Ageing Pages: 12 (3385 words) Published: February 18, 2014
Education and Learning of Older Adults
One of the most important challenges facing industrial nations is how to deal with the effects of demographic change and an ever increasing older population. Birth rates are sinking permanently and the parallel steady increase in life-expectancy are leading toward a society with a rising proportion of older people and an ever decreasing proportion of younger people. According to an international comparative study by the German Institute for Old-Age Planning (DIA, 2005), the aging of society, at least for Japan, US and European countries, presents a similar problem in these nations, but with differing rates of progression. While these developments take a very moderate form in the US, they are leading to a massive increase in the section of population over 60 years of age in that country. Currently, people over 60 make up 17% of the population in the US, 27% in Japan, and 25% in Germany (United Nations, 2005). The number of elderly in these three countries is also increasing. These demographic trends actually stimulate adult education in two ways: the first, is the potential for innovation in reception and support for the increasing number of older workers; and the second, is that educational training programs can and have to contribute to staying healthy and independent up until very old age in order to prevent the over-burdening of the system. Exactly how this can be realized with the help of educational programming will be discussed in further detail. In order to achieve this, it is important to keep in mind the needs older people have as learners, go along with their educational interests and behaviour.

When we talk about older adults here, we focus on the older workers on the one side and on people in their post-occupational phase of life on the other side. In this view older adults could be people in the second half of their working life (statistical often defined as the workers older than 45 years; Tikkanen & Nyhan 2006, p. 10) up to the highly aged people more than 80 years old. It is self-evident that this broad working definition of older adults leads to a wide range of topics and perspectives focussing on the working and learning conditions of older workers as much as on gerontological aspects of learning in old age.

Older workers
The picture of older workers in a company is fed only partially by science. The dominating image is a conglomerate of everyday observations, prejudices and out-dated stereotypes, which are mainly marked by the comparison of age with loss of performance ability (Koopman-Boyden & Macdonald, 2003, p. 34). Nevertheless, older employees are more positively rated by managers, personnel developers and younger colleagues than is often expected, due to frequent discrimination of older adults in the workforce and in the context of a company’s continuing professional development (Wrenn & Maurer, 2004, pp. 224). The decline of physical performance ability and the decreasing reaction speed of older employees can also be examined empirically (Laville & Volkoff, 1998). However, these abilities have lost their meaning in the modern era and have become irrelevant for most workplaces (Dworschak et al. 2006; Lahn, 2003; Czaja 2001). In this context there is a call for an appropriate design of work environments and subsequent programs for human resource development that include age-specific strengths and restrictions in its long-term planning (Hübner, Kühl & Putzing, 2003). The organization of work environments and their adaptation toward the needs of employees can be understood as an investment in employee health, which in return is positive for the company (Hansen & Nielsen 2006; Becker 1975). The quantity of sick-days taken by older employees is strongly influenced by working conditions, and health problems of older employees generally do not occur more often than usual, but only in conjunction with unfavorable conditions and when there are no opportunities...

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