Self-Efficacy and its Role in the Health-Related Quality of Life for Aging Adults
Health and Wellbeing
Self-Efficacy and its Role in the Health-Related Quality of Life for Aging Adults Introduction
Health-related quality of life is a concept that is multi-dimensional, including domains such as social, emotional, mental, and physical functioning. Self-efficacy, on the other hand, is defined as an individual’s belief in their capabilities to achieve performance levels they set themselves for social, emotional, mental, and physical functions (Wang et al, 2013: p222). Additionally, self-efficacy also determines how the individual will think, behave, feel, and motivate him or herself, which is dependent on their motivational, affective, cognitive, and selection processes. Individual accomplishment and wellbeing are critical aspects in the quality of life enjoyed by aging adults, especially health-related quality of life, and they are enhanced if the individual has a positive sense of self-efficacy. Moreover, aging adults with positive self-efficacy are able to foster enhanced engrossment and intrinsic interest in an array of physical and intellectual activities that aid in improving physical and mental health respectively (Kozar-Westman et al, 2013). As efficacious adults age, they can regain their health faster in the event of any health-related setbacks, while they attribute failure to do so on a deficiency in knowledge and skills, which they still feel able to acquire. Aging adults with self-efficacy tend to have an outlook that enhances their accomplishments, reduces stress, and lowers depressive episodes. Research Question
What is the impact of self-efficacy, life satisfaction, and subjective wellbeing on the health-related quality of life in aging adults? Research Aim
This research study will be investigate the influence of self-efficacy and other related concepts, such as life satisfaction and subjective wellbeing, on health-related quality of life in aging adults. Objectives
To assess the effect of self-efficacy on life satisfaction in aging adults To establish whether objective health measures are significantly correlated with life satisfaction or subjective wellbeing To assess whether self-perceived health status is significantly correlated with life satisfaction and subjective wellbeing Literature Review
Health challenges and decline in cognitive ability as adults grow old could lead to a decline in their perceptions of control and competence, particularly with regards to cognitive and physical activities. According to Aberdeen & Bye (2013: p12), the most essential health feature for aging adults is their ability to control their lives, where having increased capabilities in internal locus control enables them to protect themselves from stressful events that could impact on their health, such as depression. In this case, self-efficacious individuals and those with an internal health locus will be more likely to seek and benefit from educational health programs, which are in contrast to non-self-efficacious aging adults and have an external locus of control (Van Wagenen et al, 2013). Aging adults with low self-efficacy and an external locus of control, tend to view situational and environmental factors as being of more importance than internal factors. Consequently, they tend towards being fatalistic, while attributing their failures, including health failures, on to chance and/or other external factors.
Caprara et al (2012: p1293) notes that self-efficacy in aging adults predicts their ability to maintain cognitive function, offering evidence that self-efficacy is a crucial aspect in how individuals in old age perceive their capabilities to successfully perform specific behaviors. This, in turn, influences their interaction...
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