social reformers

Topics: Gautama Buddha, Buddhism, Theravada Pages: 217 (76239 words) Published: September 22, 2013

Jotiba Govindrao Phule
Jotiba Govindrao Phule
Mahatma Phule
April 11, 1827(1827-04-11) Satara district
November 28, 1890(1890-11-28) (aged 63)
19th century philosophy
Indian philosophy
Ethics, religion, humanism
Influenced by
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj · Moses  · Jesus · Tukaram · Kabir  · Ram Mohan Roy · George Washington  · Thomas Paine · Abraham Lincoln ·Savitribai Phule  · Thomas Jefferson · Benjamin Franklin · Martin Luther · Booker T. Washington · Mission (Christian) · Bible · Qur’an · Constitution of the United States · American Revolution · French Revolution Influenced

Bhimrao Ambedkar · Social Reform Movement in Maharashtra · Mahatma Gandhi · Shahu Maharaj  · Nana Patil  · A H Salunkhe  · Savitribai Phule  · Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III · Chhagan Bhujbal ·Prakash Ambedkar · Chiranjeevi · Panjabrao Deshmukh

Periyar E. V. Ramasamy
Born: 17 September 1879(1879-09-17) Erode, Madras Presidency, British India Died:24 December 1973(1973-12-24) (aged 94) Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India Other names: Ramasami, E.V.R., Periyar, Thanthai Periyar, E.V. Ramaswami Naicker-Periyar. Political movement: Self-Respect Movement, Tamil Nationalism Religion: Atheist

Awards: UNESCO (1970)

1.Gautama Buddha, also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, or simply the Buddha, was a sage on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. Buddha means "awakened one" or "the enlightened one." "Buddha" is also used as a title for the first awakened being in an era. In most Buddhist traditions, Siddhartha Gautama is regarded as the Supreme Buddha of our age. Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the Sramana (renunciation) movement common in his region. He later taught throughout regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Kośala. The times of Gautama's birth and death are uncertain: most historians in the early 20th century dated his lifetime as circa 563 BCE to 483 BCE, but more recent opinion dates his death to between 486 and 483 BCE or, according to some, between 411 and 400 BCE. However, at a symposium on this question held in 1988, the majority of those who presented definite opinions gave dates within 20 years either side of 400 BCE for the Buddha's death. These alternative chronologies, however, have not yet been accepted by all other historians. Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition, and first committed to writing about 400 years later. Primary biographical sources

The primary sources for the life of Siddhārtha Gautama are a variety of different, and sometimes conflicting, traditional biographies. These include the Buddhacarita, Lalitavistara Sūtra, Mahāvastu, and the Nidānakathā. Of these, the Buddhacaritais the earliest full biography, an epic poem written by the poet Aśvaghoṣa, and dating around the beginning of the 2nd century CE. The Lalitavistara Sūtra is the next oldest biography, a Mahāyāna/Sarvāstivāda biography dating to the 3rd century CE. The Mahāvastu from the MahāsāṃghikaLokottaravāda tradition is another major biography, composed incrementally until perhaps the 4th century CE. The Dharmaguptaka biography of the Buddha is the most exhaustive, and is entitled the Abhiniṣkramaṇa Sūtra, and various Chinese translations of this date between the 3rd and 6th century CE. Lastly, the Nidānakathā is from the Theravāda tradition in Sri Lanka, was composed in the 5th century CE by Buddhaghoṣa. From canonical sources, the Jātakas, the Mahapadana Sutta (DN 14), and the Achariyabhuta Sutta (MN 123) include selective accounts that may be older, but are not full biographies. The Jātakas retell previous lives of Gautama as a bodhisattva, and the first collection of these can be dated among the earliest Buddhist texts. The Mahāpadāna...
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