Topics: Human trafficking, Commercial sexual exploitation of children, Prostitution Pages: 26 (7749 words) Published: October 2, 2013

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1. Introduction
In the present time, the trafficking of women and children has increased in Bangladesh and in other countries of the world. But little efforts have been done to gain a meaningful understanding of the local dynamics of the problem. The task is difficult and involves delving into a complex area of legal issues, social attitudes, economic interests, and illicit activities. Nonetheless, a better understanding of the causes and consequences of trafficking is essential to combat this human problem, both nationally and internationally with giving effective supports. This research reports were undertaken to produce a comprehensive summary of available information concerning trafficking of women and children in Bangladesh. Information on the magnitude of the Problem, the underlying factors that foster trafficking, modes of trafficking, major trafficking routes, and consequences of trafficking and it also highlights that how to prevent trafficking and to assist trafficked people and to involves national laws and policies and international instruments relating to trafficking of woman and children.

1.2. Definition and Concepts
In a general sense, trafficking as “All acts involved in the recruitment and/or transport of a woman (or child) within and across national borders for work or services (or marriage) by means of violence or threat of violence, abuse of authority or dominant position, debt bondage, deception or other forms of coercion”1.

The UN Protocol to prevent, Suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially Women and children, goes a step further in defining trafficking. It states that2: (a) “Trafficking in persons” shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organ; (b)The consent of a victim of trafficking in persons to the intended exploitation set forth in subparagraph (a) of this article shall be irrelevant where any of the means set forth in sub paragraph (a) have been used; (c) The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation shall be considered “trafficking in persons” even if this does not involve any of the means set forth in subparagraph (a) of this article; (d) “Child” shall mean any person under eighteen years of age. This definition of trafficking involves the removal of the person from a familiar environment, but not necessarily the crossing of international borders3.

1.3. How is the Trafficking Problem Internalized?
The Bangla equivalent of the word trafficking is pachar. It has a mild connotation, which means transfer from one place to another. If the term pachar is used in reference to women and children, in Bangla the phrase nari o shishu pachar means illegal transfer of women and children from one place to another. Trafficking, which is a serious problem and is considered a violation of human rights, is yet to be internalized emotionally by society at large in Bangladesh and also in other South Asian countries.

The term itself does not capture the total implications for an adolescent girl to be abducted and taken to a brothel; threatened, beaten, and raped; and forced to submit to having sex with men, seven days a week, for several years until she eventually becomes ill which may sometime result in death. The crux of the issue is that civil...

References: 2. T. Bennett Preventing trafficking in women and children in Asia: issues and options. Impact on HIV, 1999.
3. M. Bhattacharjya Trafficking in South Asia: a conceptual clarity workshop. (New Delhi: Jagori, 1998).
4. H. Hossain Trafficking in women and children from Bangladesh: causes and measures for combating trafficking. (Dhaka: Ain o Salish Kendro, 1997).
5. Khan ZR& Arefeen HK. Report on Prostitution Bangladesh, (Dhaka: Centre for Social Studies), Dhaka University, 1989-90.
6. Latika Sarkar & Sivaramayya, Women & Law; Contemporary Problems, 1st ed. (Dhaka: CCB Foundation, 1991).
7. Md. Ibrahim Sarkar, Nari O Shishu Nirjatan Daman Ain, 2000, 1st ed. (Dhaka: Bangladesh Law Book Co. 2008).
8. MD. Shafiqul Islam, The Penal Code, 1860 3rd ed. (Dhaka-Shams Publications, April 2008).
9. Shaheen Akhtar Munir, Violence against Women in Bangladesh, 1st ed. (Dhaka: CCB Foundation 2006).
10. L. Kabir, Lectures on The Penal Code, 2nd ed. (Dhaka: Ain Prokashan, February 2008).
2. The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, 2006.
2. Nari Shishu Pachar Rodha Koronio, Daink Jugantar (25th July, 2006)
4. Women and Children Trafficking: The Independent (25th September, 1996)
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