P4: to describe two theories of ageing –disengagement and activity P5 – Describe physical and psychological changes due to the ageing process M3: Use examples to describe the 2 theories of ageing
D2: Evaluate the influence of 2 major theories on health and social care provisions. The activity theory
The Activity Theory was originally an idea that was proposed by Lemon Bengtson &Peterson this proposal was seen to have a much more hopeful and positive view on ageing in comparison to the disengagement theory by Cumming and Henry. The activity theory suggests that as people get older their ageing process will be more successful if they maintain their roles and responsibilities as they did when they were younger this is if they continue to occupy themselves with activities and keep a positive outlook on life. Moreover if a person has increased social contact and continuously engages themselves with activities and has a positive attitude towards life. In order to the maintain their social, emotional, physical and intellectual abilities and skills and have a good quality of life old people will need to receive the support/ facilities they need for them to be able to seize any opportunity to stay active, these opportunities will come from having roles, responsibilities and relationships which they can share their life experiences with. These are the factors that will affect whether or not and old person will go through the disengagement process or the activity process in later life. In comparison to the disengagement theory the activity theory views old age as an extension to the middle age instead of a separate psychological and biological stage in an individual’s life. So the activity theory proposes that old age is a continuity of the middle age as an individual should carry forward the biological and psychological stage of life from the middle age into old age. In the 1950’s Havighurst said that in old age if there is a loss of roles, activities or relationships that individual should replace those roles with new roles, responsibilities or activities in order to stay happy and have a positive outlook on life which will give the individuals life value and well-being. He also said that if and individual stays actively involved with others on a social level they will be more satisfied with their own life. In old age, events such as bereavement and retirement can inhibit the levels of social networking and a person’s outlook and perspective on life. However Bromley argued and said that an old person will need to disengage to a certain extent but at the same time stay active, this is to ensure that the process of disengagement does not fully complete. He argued that: 'It is not sufficient merely to provide facilities for elderly people. They need to be educated to make use of them and encouraged to abandon apathetic attitudes and fixed habits.' In this quote from Bromley we can see how he thinks that just by giving older people facilities to use it will not help them to come out of the disengagement process or for some it does not prevent them from experiencing the process of disengagement in the first place. In order to stop this from taking place elderly people will need to be taught how to make use of these facilities to their full extent. Disengagement Theory- Cumming/Henry 1961
Cumming and Henry came up with the idea of The Disengagement Theory, this theory suggests that the as people begin to get older they start to withdraw from all the positive things that they previously did in their lives from when they were younger. According to Cumming and Henry this was as a result of a decline in their health and ability to do things as they normally would, this decline could be in their physical, social, emotional and intellectual skills and abilities. Due to the disengagement process people lower their interests and reduce the amount of activities that they participate in because they feel like...
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