Values and Attitudes constitute Human Resource Management

Topics: Human resource management, Organizational studies, Culture Pages: 7 (1278 words) Published: April 20, 2014
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Values and Attitudes constitute Human
Resource
Contents
I.

Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 2

II.

What is value and attitude? ............................................................................................................ 2 2.1

Value ....................................................................................................................................... 2

2.2

Attitudes.................................................................................................................................. 3

III.

Why they are considered as asset? ............................................................................................ 3

IV.

How organisations can use HR as integrate value? .................................................................... 4

V.

Reference ........................................................................................................................................ 5

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I.

Introduction

Human Resource is recognized universally by organisations as valuable assets (Weatherly, 2003). ). Humans and the potential they possess, like knowledge, skill and experience, maintain an organization running and producing (KWON, 2009; Frank & Bemanke, 2007). However, as Mayo (2001:12) stated that, ‘People are often spoken as assets but are generally treated as costs, because we have no credible system of valuing them’. This statement is arisen the question inspired by many researchers to explore that how organisations use the value of human resource to integrate organisations value (Yeung &Berman, 1997; White & Bryson, 2013). Mayo (2001) also considered that the problem is the lack of credible measures that relate to people and their value. Specifically, different organisations require different values and attitudes constituting human resources applied with difference strategic human resource management. This essay is to examine how organisations contain and use human resource which is constituted by specific values and attitudes to integrate organisations’ value.

II.

What is value and attitude?

2.1 Value
Value is defined as ‘a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence’ (Parashar et al., 2004: 143). Namely, value is a judgmental element of what is right, good, wrong and bad. In this context, value means work value. As Bu & Mckeen (2001:166) stated, the concept of work values is ‘the end states that individuals desire and expect through working’. Meanwhile, work value plays a central role on shaping individual’s expectations of work, their response to specific work situations and their performance in a work role (Huff & Kelly, 2004).

Geert Hofsted has a significant contribution on the research of the relationship between work value, attitude and organisational culture (1998). He points out an individual’s work values is based on the effect of national cultural because an individual’s work value is shaped by family, social, and cultural values and beliefs (Hofstede, 2001). For example, to Japanese, their understanding of loyalty not only stretches to their family but also to their workplace (Chew & Putti, 1995). Therefore, the turnover rate of employment is relatively low in Japan.

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2.2 Attitudes
The concept of attitude captures ‘a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favourable or unfavourable manner with respect to a given object’ (White & Bryson, 2013). That is, attitudes affect behaviour at a different level than values do. Whereas attitudes appear to be transitive and context specific, values are usually presented as having a degree of immutability (Sagie et al., 1996). For example, in an employee survey, 'how satisfied are you with your career opportunities?’ is...
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