Socrates, our Greek philosopher, has profoundly affected our philosophy. Born in Athens, the son of Sophroniscus, he received the regular elementary education in literature, music, and gymnastics. He familiarized himself with the rhetoric and dialectics of the Sophists, the speculations of the lonian philosophers, and the general culture of Periclean Athens. I interviewed Socrates outside of his cell after his trial. He had just finished talking to his admirers. There he had many things to say. Q: How is your attitude toward politics? A: I obeyed the Athens Laws, but generally steered clear of politic, by what I believed to be divine warning. Q: Did you write any books about your believes? A: I wrote no books and established no regular school of philosophy. My students took down good notes. Let them write the books. Q: What did you believe in? A: My contribution to philosophy was essentially ethical in character. Belief in a purely objective understanding of such concepts as justice, love and virtue and the self-knowledge that I inculated, were the basis of my teachings. I believed that all vice is the result of ignorance, and that no person is willing bad. Q: Who is Antisthenes? A: Another thinker befriended and influenced by me was Antisthenes, the founder of Cynic school of philosophy. Q: What were you charged with? A: I was charged with neglecting the gods of the state and introducing new divinities, a reference to the daemonion, or mystical inner voice, to which I often referred.I was also charged with corrupting the morals of the young, leading them away from the princibles of democracy. Q: Did Plato(your student) defend you? A: Plato’s apology gives the substance of the defense made by me at my trial; it was a bold vindication of my whole life. I was condemned to die, although the vote was carried by only a small majority. Q: What lead to the death penalty? A:Well, according to the Athenian legal practice, I made an ironic counter proposition to the court’s death sentence, proposing only to pay a small fine because of my value to the state as a man with a philosophic mission,the jury was so angered by this offer that it voted an increase majority for the death penalty. Q: Did you plan on running away and escaping from jail? A: My friends planned my escape from prison,but I preferred to comply with the law and die for my cause. Q: Why did you drink the posion? A: I spent my last day with me friends and admirers, and in the evening I calmly fulfilled my sentence by drinking a cup of hemlock.
The Peloponnesian War is a ancient Greek war that is being fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. The war is divided into three separate wars. One is the Archidamian War. It was launched by Sparta, basically repeated attacks on ATTICA. The Peace of Nicias ended this part of the war. The last war was called the Decelean War also known as Lonian War. The Peloponnesian War started 431 B.C.and might lasted until 404B.C. It took place on the Mainland of Greece Asia Minor and Sicily. Sparta caused the war with Athens in 431B.C. because they were afraid of any growth of power coming from Athens, cause the great part of Hellas was under the control of Athens. They thought the development of Athens was a major power in the Mediterranean world. This...
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